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  1. The Untold Story of Reformation Women's Sacred Music - De ...

    blog.degruyter.com/reformation-womens-sacred-music
    • Rediscovering Female Musicianship
    • Truths, Myths and Stereotypes
    • Frau Musika Or Women’s Music?
    • Scanty Sources
    • Social Status
    • Patronesses and Prioresses
    • The Impact of The Reformations
    • Artistry and Sanctity

    Writing about female musicianship does not mean to segregate it, or to posit its fundamental and intrinsic otherness in comparison to men’s music, or to adhere to the so called female quota ideology. But women’s important contributions to musicianship and sanctity, to artistry and theology in the sixteenth century – in short, women’s voices, often preserved more scantily than those of their male counterparts, might be suffocated unless they receive specific attention. Moreover, whereas judgements of artistic value based on gender are ridiculous either way, I do believe that there are distinguishing features, proper to the female approach to faith and to music, which can and should be highlighted. As a woman musician and believer, I listen with particular care to the musical experiences of female singers, instrumentalists and composers, who lived as nuns, mothers, wives or unmarried women five centuries before my own life. Across confessional divides, lay and religious women listened...

    When studying the relationship between women and sacred music in the sixteenth century, there are some truths to be avowed, some stereotypes to problematize or qualify, and some myths to dispel. Among the undeniable truths we must acknowledge the impressive disproportion in the surviving sources regarding the music of women and that of men, as well as the presence of objective social and religious factors which have caused this situation. Nevertheless, the sixteenth century was also the century when the first collections of sacred music written by women were printed: it was a momentous beginning, and a symptom of a dawning change. Among the stereotypes to problematize is, for example, the lack of opportunities for professional musicianship for women in the sixteenth century. While this lack was indeed an objective fact, we should keep in mind that choosing one’s occupation freely and depending on one’s talents and inclination was a luxury for most people back then, whether they were...

    Martin Luther’s beautiful praise of music, Frau Musika, resembles, in both shape and content, a love song for music personified as a woman. Music was frequently depicted and symbolized as a woman in this way. It could be embodied by several mythological, religious and historical figures, from the Muses to St. Cecilia. A less common symbol, though a very significant one, is the Gospel figure of St. Mary Magdalene. In her case, tradition conflated and identified the portraits of three different female characters of the Gospel with a single woman: Mary the sister of Martha and Lazarus of Bethany, Mary who had been possessed by seven demons and the prostitute who washed Jesus’ feet with her tears. Mary Magdalene had also been the first to see and to talk with the risen Christ, who had asked her to bear witness to his resurrection with the other disciples. Thus, the fascinating figure of the Magdalene could represent femininity as corruption (the prostitute), as an irrational and obscure...

    One consequence of the restrictive attitudes towards women’s music is a depressing paucity of historical sources. If many of our evaluations about sixteenth-century music are hopelessly flawed by our impossibility of hearing how it actually sounded, in the case of women’s music, we lack not only the aural evidence, but even the written sources. In most cases, and sadly, the music of sixteenth-century women has been silenced forever. But the rarity of preserved sources does not mean that women’s music was inferior: music permeated the lives of sixteenth-century women no less than men’s. At least quantitatively, it is safe to assume that women made music as much as men did. However, as far as the documents in our possession suggest, none of the greatest masterpieces of sixteenth-century music were composed by a woman. There are many explanations for this. First of all, there is the problem of musical literacy, which often represented a degree of knowledge and culture which was higher,...

    Though the scantiness of written sources is a constant feature of early-modern female musicianship, proportions changed dramatically with the social status of the women under consideration. The female voices of peasant, poor and uneducated women in the cities of the sixteenth century is hardest to perceive today. But singing was an extremely common activity for women belonging to these classes. At work, singing was a much welcome relief that could lessen the fatigue and boredom that came with repetitive tasks. The informal and spontaneous singing of vernacular religious songs could also bring comfort and hope, and give a spiritual meaning to the hardships which underprivileged women frequently had to endure. One heart-warming anecdote reports that a woman who was suffering from a difficult labour found comfort and, eventually, the strength to give birth to her baby, when she heard a Lutheran chorale hummed by a passing schoolboy in Joachimsthal. We can imagine that singing was also...

    It was not infrequent, for noblewomen, to become patronesses of music and musicians, and sometimes to foster the creation of works in genres which were normally neglected by male patrons. In particular, and especially in Italy, noblewomen tended to sponsor secular rather than religious music and the creation of chamber music works for small ensembles. This situation was related to social issues. The small size of the performing forces matched the idea that a domestic context was the appropriate framework for women’s initiative, and the male preponderance in the field of sacred music corresponded to their prevalence in Church hierarchies. Queen Elizabeth of England, who was the sponsor of an exceptional chapel performing superb church music, is only the exception which confirms the rule, since she was the Supreme Governor of the Church of England and an extremely powerful civil ruler. She also fostered programs for the improvement of musical education. Among the Habsburgs, Margaret o...

    If this was a cursory discussion of the musicianship in Catholic monasteries, the history of the religious Reformations intertwined in turn with various aspects of women’s music. On the one hand, where congregational singing was encouraged, introduced and implemented (such as among Lutherans and Calvinists, or in Bucer’s Strasbourg), women had a new and sometimes revolutionary possibility of making themselves heard in church. On the other, leadership was and remained mostly male, with the exception of some smaller confessions, or tended to be reabsorbed by men after some concessions to women had been made. The religious Reformations, both Catholic and Evangelical, actively fostered the musical education of girls. Following Luther’s letter To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation(1520), which explicitly promoted schooling and education for girls, many Evangelical movements provided children of both sexes with at least some basic knowledge in literacy; music, of course, was neve...

    The history of female sacred music in the sixteenth century clearly deserves respect, attention, debate and interest, and I hope that my work will stimulate further research and discussion. While a great part of sixteenth century women’s spiritual experience and work is irrecoverably lost, a wealth of stories of artistry and sanctity still remains to be discovered. Title image: Master of the Female Half-Lengths (fl. circa 1500–1530) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

  2. Brautlied | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries...

    Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Sophie Elisabeth von (1613–1676) Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Sibylle Ursula von (1629–1671) Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Elisabeth von (1519–1558)

  3. Frederick III, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_III,_Duke_of...

    A folk song which was discovered in the early 1990s, entitled Duke Frederick, which refers to the circumstances of Frederick's arrest. It consists of eight stanzas and is written in a Low German dialect, apparently at the time of Hildesheim Feud. The song laments the alleged injustice that had befallen Frederick.

  4. The Classen Early (Pre-1750) Collection | Sophie

    sophie.byu.edu/literature_early_pre1750

    Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Elisabeth von: Lebensbericht (Poem) Meiner geliebten Mutter Julie Havemann geb. Möller (Autobiography, Biography, Essay, Poem Collection, 1839) Neujahrslied für ihre Tochter Katharina (Poem) Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Sophie Hedwig von: Von aller Welt verlassen (Poetry, Song Lyric, 1593) Classen, Albrecht, ed.

  5. edged in traditional studies, Sophie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1613-76) makes an ap‐ pearance. In congruence with the book's general aim, her compositions are not presented as her only true achievement, but as part of her wider engagement with music as performer, patron, and collector. The third chapter, devoted to the lower

  6. Fom Miriam to Flois Knolle-Hix - Theologinnenkonvent

    www.theologinnenkonvent.de/pdf/reformation/Fom...

    In the song, Elisabeth expresses her personal conviction of faith in the German language. Nonetheless the song exhibits strong connections to tradition. Elisabeth combines the biblical and patristic testimony with central aspects of Protestant doctrine. There are even echoes of medieval mysticism, including that of female writers.

  7. Welcome to Sophie's Literature Collection: List by Author ...

    sophie.byu.edu/literature_collection_authors/B

    Ein Lobgesang für alle Errettung von Jugend auf (Poetry, Song Lyric, 1555) Loblied nach Psalm 103 (Poetry, Song Lyric, 1555) Der Beschluß (Poetry, Song Lyric) Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Elisabeth von: Lebensbericht (Poem) Neujahrslied für ihre Tochter Katharina (Poem) Meiner geliebten Mutter Julie Havemann geb.

  8. Mother, Martyr and Mary Magdalene: German Female Pamphleteers ...

    www.researchgate.net/publication/229612636...

    In this article two noblewomen, Argula von Grumbach and Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, and two middle-class Protestants, Katharina Schütz Zell and Ursula Weida, serve as case studies of ...

  9. Herzog von braunschweig | über 80%

    kussen-r.net/wiki/Herzogtum_Braunschweigw-ou18431ya-

    Herzog von Braunschweig(Gesamthaus Braunschweig - Lüneburg) Drei weitere Töchter. Marie Luise (1879-1948) Alexandra (1882-1963) Olga (1884-1958) Friederike (1917-1981) Königin von Griechenland Prinzessin von Hannover. Adolph Friedrich (1774 -1850) Herzog von Cambridge.

  10. Saphir Diamant Diadem | Prinzessin Elisabeth 'Edda' von ...

    royal-magazin.de/german/stolberg/stolberg-erbach...

    Die Feierlichkeiten anlässlich der Vermählung der Prinzessin Marie Elisabeth 'Edda' Donata zu Erbach-Schönberg 1883-1966 mit dem Prinzen Wilhelm zu Stolberg-Wernigerode 1870-1931 wurde bereits am Montag Abend durch ein Souper der hohen Herrschaften auf dem Schloss eingeleitet.