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  1. Family tree of Polish monarchs - WikiMili, The Best Wikipedia ...

    Jun 21, 2020 · Catherine Jagellon 1526–1583: ... Duke of Edinburgh is the husband of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. ... Images, videos and ...

  2. Gediminas (c1275-1341) | Familypedia | Fandom
    • Titles
    • Biography
    • Family
    • Choice of Religion
    • Incorporation of Slavic Lands
    • Domestic Affairs and Death
    • Legacy
    • See Also

    Gediminas' normal Latin style is as follows: 1. Gedeminne Dei gratia Letwinorum et multorum Ruthenorum rex Which translates as: 1. "Gediminas, by the grace of God, of the Lithuanians and many Rus'ians, king" In his letters to the papacy in 1322 and 1323, he adds Princeps et Duke Semigallie (Prince and Duke of Semigallia). In contemporary Low German he is styled simply Koningh van Lettowen, mirroring the Latin Rex Lethowye(both "King of Lithuania"). Gediminas' right to use Latin rex, which the papacy had been claiming the right to grant from the 13th century, was controversial in some Catholic sources. So for instance he was called rex sive dux ("King or Duke") by one source; Pope John XXII, in a letter to the King of France, refers to Gediminas as "the one who calls himself rex". However, the pope did call Gediminas rex when addressing him (regem sive ducem, "king or duke").


    Gediminas was born in about 1275. Because written sources of the era are scarce, Gediminas' ancestry, early life, and assumption of the title of Grand Duke in ca. 1316 are obscure and continue to be the subject of scholarly debate. Various theories have claimed that Gediminas was either his predecessor Grand Duke Vytenis' son, his brother, his cousin, or his hostler.For several centuries only two versions of his origins circulated. Chronicles—written long after Gediminas' death by the Teutoni...


    It is uncertain how many wives Gediminas had. The Bychowiec Chronicle mentions three wives: Wida of Courland, Olga of Smolensk and Jewna of Polotsk, who was Eastern Orthodox and died in 1344 or 1345. Most modern historians and reference works say Gediminas' wife was Jewna, dismissing Vida and Olga as fictitious, since no sources other than this chronicle mention the other two wives.The historian S. C. Rowell argues that Gediminas' wife was a local pagan duchess, on the grounds that his marria...

    Children and grandchildren

    Because none of Gediminas' siblings had strong heirs, Gediminas and his children were in a favorable position to assume and consolidate power in the Grand Duchy. Gediminas had at least five daughters and seven sons, whose shrewd marriages helped to consolidate and expand the Grand Duchy's influence to areas east and west of Lithuania. Those marriages speak to Gediminas' diplomatic talent in building alliances with the neighboring states that shared his goals to destroy the Teutonic Order and...

    He inherited a vast domain, comprising not only of Lithuania proper, but also of Samogitia, Navahrudak, Podlasie, Polotsk and Minsk. However, these possessions were all environed by the State of the Teutonic Order and the Livonian Order, which have long been the enemies of the state. Gediminas allied himself with the Tatarsagainst the Teutonic order in 1319. The systematic raiding of Lithuania by the knights under the pretext of converting it had long since united all the Lithuanian tribes, but Gediminas aimed at establishing a dynasty which should make Lithuania not merely secure but powerful, and for this purpose he entered into direct diplomatic negotiations with the Holy See as well. At the end of 1322, he sent letters to Pope John XXII soliciting his protection against the persecution of the knights, informing him of the privileges already granted to the Dominicans and Franciscans in Lithuania for the preaching of God's Word. Gediminas also asked that legates should be dispatch...

    While on his guard against his northern foes, Gediminas from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Slavonic principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all. Here Gediminas triumphal progress was irresistible; but the various stages of it are impossible to follow, the sources of its history being few and conflicting, and the date of every salient event exceedingly doubtful. One of his most important territorial accretions, the principality of Halych-Volynia, was obtained by the marriage of his son Liubartaswith the daughter of the Galician prince. From about 23 km (14 mi) south west of Kiev, Gediminas resoundingly defeated Stanislav of Kiev and his allies in the Battle of the Irpin River. He then besieged and conquered Kiev sending Stanislav, the last descendant of the Rurik Dynasty to ever rule Kiev, into exile first in Bryanskand then in Ryazan. Theodor, brother of Gediminas, and Algimantas,...

    His internal administration bears all the marks of a wise ruler. He protected the Catholic as well as the Orthodox clergy; he raised the Lithuanian army to the highest state of efficiency then attainable; defended his borders with a chain of strong fortresses and built numerous castles in towns including Vilnius. At first he moved the capital to the newly built town of Trakai, but in c. 1320 re-established a permanent capital in Vilnius. Gediminas died in 1341, presumably killed during a coup d'état. He was cremated as a part of a fully pagan ceremony in 1342, which included a human sacrifice, with favourite servant and several German slaves being burned on the pyre with the corpse.All these facts assert that Gediminas most likely remained entirely faithful to his native Lithuanian religion, and that his feigned interest in Catholicism was simply a ruse designed to gain allies against the Teutonic Order. He was succeded by one of his sons, Jaunutis, who was unable to control the unr...

    He was a founder of a new Lithuanian dynasty; the Gediminids, and laid the foundations of the state's expansion while sometimes referred as the "true" state founder. In modern belief, he is also regarded as founder of Vilnius, the modern capital of Lithuania. According to a legend, possibly set in 1322 while he was on a hunting trip, he dreamt of an iron clad wolf, who stood on a hill, howling in an odd manner. He consulted his vision with his priests and decided to build a fortification on the confluence of rivers Vilnia and Neris, where the place of his vision was pointed out. This event inspired the Romantic movement, particularly Adam Mickiewicz, who gave the story a poetic form. Gediminas is depicted on a silver Litascommemorative coin, issued in 1996.

    • 1275
    • Olga of Smolensk (c1280-1344)
    • Wida of Courland
    • Jewna of Polotsk (c1280-c1344)
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    Mar 28, 2015 - Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania • daughter of Sigismund I the Old and Bona Sforza • married Stephen Bathory, Prince of Transylvania • born 18 October 1523 - died 9 September 1596 (aged 72) • Anna remained unmarried until her fifties when she inherited the thrones of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth with her new husband and co-ruler Stephen Bathory • she ...

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  5. Elizabeth OF HABSBURG (1436-1505) » Stamboom Riny Doyle ...

    Elizabeth OF HABSBURG est né(e) en l'an 1436, fille de Albert II OF GERMANY et Elisabeth OF LUXEMBOURG. Elle s'est le 10 mars 1454 marié avec Casimir IV Jagiellon OF POLAND, ils ont eu 1 enfant. Elle est décédée le 30 août 1505. Cette information fait partie de de sur Généalogie Online.

    • Female
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