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Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy 1869--1964. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was born into the local elite of Cavite on the Island of Luzon in the Philippines.His father had been mayor of Kawit (Cavite viejo) at the time of his death in 1878, a post Aguinaldo himself would hold in 1895.
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was born on March 22, 1869 in Cavite el Viejo (present-day Kawit) in the province of Cavite to Carlos Aguinaldo y Jamir and Trinidad Famy y Villanueva, a couple that had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio Sr. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as his father, Carlos Aguinaldo, was the community's ...
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Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipino independence leader who fought against Spain and the United States. When Philippine independence was declared in 1898, Aguinaldo became president, but within months Spain signed a treaty ceding the islands to the U.S. Aguinaldo fought U.S. forces until he was captured in 1901.
Apr 02, 2014 · Emilio Aguinaldo was born on March 22, 1869, in Kawit, Cavite, Philippines. Nicknamed Miong, Aguinaldo was the seventh of eight children. His parents were of Chinese and Tagalog descent.
- Philippine Revolution
- Spanish-American War
- Presidency of The First Republic of The Philippines
- Philippine-American War
- U.S. Occupation
- Post-American Era
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His first marriage was in 1896, with Hilaria Del Rosario(1877-1921), and they had five children (Miguel, Carmen, Emilio Jr., Maria, and Cristina). On March 6, 1921, his first wife died, and in 1930, he married Dona Maria Agoncillo, niece of Don Felipe Agoncillo, the pioneer Filipino diplomat. Several of Aguinaldo's descendants became prominent political figures in their own right. A grandnephew, Cesar Virata, served as Prime Minister of the Philippines from 1981 to 1986. Aguinaldo's granddaughter, Ameurfina Melencio Herrera, served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court from 1979 until 1992. His great-grandson, Joseph Emilio Abaya, was elected House of Representatives to the 13th and 14th Congress, representing the 1st District of Cavite. The present mayor of Kawit, Cavite, Reynaldo Aguinaldo, is a grandson of the former president, while the vice-mayor, Emilio "Orange" Aguinaldo IV, is a great-grandson.
In 1895, Aguinaldo joined the Katipunan rebellion, a secret organization then led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force. He joined as a lieutenant under Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo and rose to the rank of generalin a few months. The same week that he received his new rank, 30,000 members of the Katipunan launched an attack against the Spanish colonists. Only Emilio Aguinaldo’s troops launched a successful attack. In 1896, the Philippines erupted in revolt against the Spaniards. Aguinaldo won major victories for the Katipunan in Cavite Province, temporarily driving the Spanish out of the area. However, renewed Spanish military pressure compelled the rebels to restructure their forces in a more cohesive manner. The insulated fragmentation that had protected the Katipunan's secrecy had outlived its usefulness. By now, the Katipunan had divided into two factions; one, the Magdalo, led by Aguinaldo and based in...
Thousands of other Katipuneros continued to fight the Revolution against Spain for a sovereign nation. In May 1898, war broke out between Spain and the United States and a Spanish warship was sunk in Manila Bay by the fleet of U.S. Admiral George Dewey. Aguinaldo, who had already agreed to a supposed alliance with the United States through the American consul in Singapore, returned to the Philippines in May 1898, and immediately resumed revolutionary activities against the Spaniards, now receiving verbal encouragement from emissaries of the United States. In Cavite, on the advice of lawyer Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, he established a provisional dictatorial government to "repress with a strong hand the anarchy which is the inevitable sequel of all revolutions." On June 12, 1898, he proclaimed Philippine independence in Kawit, and began to organize local political units all over the Philippines. From Cavite, Aguinaldo led his troops to victory after victory over the Spanish forces u...
President Aguinaldo had two cabinets in the year 1899. Thereafter, the war situation resulted in his ruling by decree.
On the night of February 4, 1899, a Filipino was shot by an American sentry as he crossed Silencio Street, Sta. Mesa, Manila. This incident is considered the beginning of the Philippine-American War, and open fighting soon broke out between American troops and pro-independence Filipinos. Superior American firepower drove Filipino troops away from the city, and the Malolos government had to move from one place to another. Offers by U.S. President William McKinleyto set up an autonomous Philippine government under an American flag were rejected. Aguinaldo led resistance to the Americans, then retreated to northern Luzon with the Americans on his trail. On June 2, 1899, Gen. Antonio Luna, an arrogant but brilliant general and Aguinaldo’s looming rival in the military hierarchy, received a telegram from Aguinaldo, ordering him to proceed to Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, for a meeting at the Cabanatuan Church Convent. Three days later, on June 5, Luna arrived and learned that Aguinaldo was no...
Aguinaldo retired from public life for many years. During the United States occupation, Aguinaldo organized the Asociación de los Veteranos de la Revolución(Association of Veterans of the Revolution), which worked to secure pensions for its members and made arrangements for them to buy land on installment from the government. When the American government finally allowed the Philippine flag to be displayed in 1919, Aguinaldo transformed his home in Kawit into a monument to the flag, the revolution, and the declaration of Independence. His home still stands, and is known as the Aguinaldo Shrine. In 1935, when the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established in preparation for Philippine independence, he ran for president but lost by a landslide to fiery Spanish mestizo, Manuel L. Quezon. The two men formally reconciled in 1941, when President Quezon moved Flag Day to June 12, to commemorate the proclamation of Philippine independence. Aguinaldo again retired to private life, until...
In 1950, President Elpidio Quirino appointed Aguinaldo as a member of the Council of State, where he served a full term. He returned to retirement soon after, dedicating his time and attention to veteran soldiers' interests and welfare. In 1962, when the United States rejected Philippine claims for the destruction wrought by American forces in World War II, president Diosdado Macapagal changed the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. Aguinaldo rose from his sickbed to attend the celebration of independence 64 years after he declared it. Aguinaldo died on February 6, 1964, of coronary thrombosis at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. He was 94 years old. His remains are buried at the Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite. When he died, he was the last surviving non-royal head of state to have served in the nineteenth century.
Filippino historians are ambiguous about Aguinaldo’s role in the history of the Philippines. He was the leader of the revolution and the first president of the first republic, but he is criticized for ordering the execution of Andres Bonifacio and for his possible involvement in the murder of Antonio Luna, and also for accepting an indemnity payment and exile in Hong Kong. Some scholars view him as an example of the leading role taken by members of the landowning elite in the revolution.Aguinaldo, Emilio. A Second Look at America. New Yor, NY: R. Speller, 1957.Bain, David Haward. Sitting in Darkness: Americans in the Philippines. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1984. ISBN 0395352851Constantino, Renato and Letizia R. Constantino. A History of the Philippines from the Spanish Colonization to the Second World War. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1975. ISBN 0853453942Lacsamana, Leodivico Cruz. Philippine History and Government. Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Pub. House, 2006. ISBN 9710618946
All links retrieved September 8, 2017. 1. Emilio Aguinaldo y FamyLibrary of Congress. 2. Emilio Aguinaldo Biography 3. Works by Emilio Aguinaldo. Project Gutenberg.
- Early Life
- Philippine Revolution
- Spanish-American War
- Resistance to American Occupation
- World War II
- Post-War Era
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was the seventh of eight children born to a wealthy mestizo family in Cavite on March 22, 1869. His father Carlos Aguinaldo y Jamir was the town mayor, or gobernadorcillo, of Old Cavite. Emilio's mother was Trinidad Famy y Valero. As a boy, he went to elementary school and attended secondary school at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, but had to drop out before earning his high school diploma when his father passed away in 1883. Emilio stayed home to assist his mother with the family's agricultural holdings. On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo made his first foray into politics with an appointment as Cavite's capitan municipal. Like fellow anti-colonial leader Andres Bonifacio, he also joined the Masons.
In 1894, Andres Bonifacio himself inducted Aguinaldo into the Katipunan, a secret anti-colonial organization. The Katipunan called for the removal of Spain from the Philippines by armed force if necessary. In 1896 after the Spanish executed Jose Rizal, the voice of Filipino independence, the Katipunan started their revolution. Meanwhile, Aguinaldo married his first wife, Hilaria del Rosario, who would tend to wounded soldiers through her Hijas de la Revolucion(Daughters of the Revolution) organization. While many of the Katipunan rebel bands were ill-trained and had to retreat in the face of Spanish forces, Aguinaldo's troops were able to out-fight the colonial troops even in a pitched battle. Aguinaldo's men drove the Spanish from Cavite. However, they came into conflict with Bonifacio, who had declared himself president of the Philippine Republic, and his supporters. In March 1897, the two Katipunan factions met in Tejeros for an election. The assembly elected Aguinaldo president...
In the spring of 1898, events half a world away overtook Aguinaldo and the Filipino rebels. The United States naval vessel USS Maine exploded and sank in Havana Harbor, Cuba, in February. Public outrage at Spain's supposed role in the incident, fanned by sensationalist journalism, provided the United States with a pretext to start the Spanish-American Waron April 25, 1898. Aguinaldo sailed back to Manila with the U.S. Asian Squadron, which defeated the Spanish Pacific Squadron in the Battle of Manila Bay. By May 19, 1898, Aguinaldo was back on his home soil. On June 12, 1898, the revolutionary leader declared the Philippines independent, with himself as the unelected president. He commanded Filipino troops in the battle against the Spanish. Meanwhile, close to 11,000 American troops cleared Manila and other Spanish bases of colonial troops and officers. On December 10, Spain surrendered its remaining colonial possessions (including the Philippines) to the United States in the Treaty...
Aguinaldo was officially inaugurated as the first president and dictator of the Philippine Republic in January 1899. Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini headed the new cabinet. However, the United States refused to recognize the new independent government. President William McKinleyclaimed that doing so would be at odds with the American goal of "Christianizing" the (largely Roman Catholic) people of the Philippines. Indeed, although Aguinaldo and other Filipino leaders were unaware of it initially, Spain had handed over direct control of the Philippines to the United States in return for $20 million, as agreed to in the Treaty of Paris. Despite rumored promises of independence made by U.S. military officers eager for Filipino help in the war, the Philippine Republic was not to be a free state. It had simply acquired a new colonial master.
Aguinaldo and the victorious Filipino revolutionaries did not see themselves as the Americans did, as half-devil or half-child. Once they realized they had been tricked and were indeed "new-caught," the people of the Philippines reacted with outrage. On January 1, 1899, Aguinaldo responded to the American "Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation" by publishing his own counter-proclamation: In February 1899, the first Philippines Commission from the United States arrived in Manila to find 15,000 American troops holding the city, facing off from trenches against 13,000 of Aguinaldo's men, who were arrayed all around Manila. By November, Aguinaldo was once again running for the mountains, his troops in disarray. However, the Filipinos continued to resist this new imperial power, turning to guerrilla war after conventional fighting failed them. For two years, Aguinaldo and a shrinking band of followers evaded concerted American efforts to locate and capture the rebel leadership. On March 2...
Aguinaldo continued to be an outspoken advocate of independence for the Philippines. His organization, the Asociacion de los Veteranos de la Revolucion(Association of Revolutionary Veterans), worked to ensure that former rebel fighters had access to land and pensions. His first wife Hilaria died in 1921. Aguinaldo married for a second time in 1930 at the age of 61. His new bride was 49-year-old María Agoncillo, the niece of a prominent diplomat. In 1935, the Philippine Commonwealth held its first elections after decades of American rule. Then 66, Aguinaldo ran for president but was soundly defeated by Manuel Quezon. When Japan seized the Philippines during World War II, Aguinaldo cooperated with the occupation. He joined the Japanese-sponsored Council of State and made speeches urging an end to Filipino and American opposition to the Japanese. After the United States recaptured the Philippines in 1945, the septuagenarian Aguinaldo was arrested and imprisoned as a collaborator. Howev...
Aguinaldo was appointed to the Council of State again in 1950, this time by President Elpidio Quirino. He served one term before returning to his work on behalf of veterans. In 1962, President Diosdado Macapagal asserted pride in Philippine independence from the United States by making a highly symbolic gesture; he moved the celebration of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, the date of Aguinaldo's declaration of the First Philippine Republic. Aguinaldo himself joined in the festivities, although he was 92 years old and rather frail. The following year, before his final hospitalization, he donated his home to the government as a museum.
On February 6, 1964, the 94-year-old first president of the Philippines passed away from coronary thrombosis. He left behind a complicated legacy. Aguinaldo fought long and hard for independence for the Philippines and worked tirelessly to secure veterans' rights. At the same time, he ordered the execution of his rivals—including Andres Bonifacio—and collaborated with the brutal Japanese occupation of the Philippines.
Although Aguinaldo is today often heralded as a symbol of the democratic and independent spirit of the Philippines, he was a self-proclaimed dictator during his short period of rule. Other members of the Chinese/Tagalog elite, such as Ferdinand Marcos, would later wield that power more successfully.Kinzer, Stephen. "The True Flag: Theodore Roosevelt, Mark Twain, and the Birth of American Empire." St. Martin's Griffin, 2018.Ooi, Keat Gin. "Southeast Asia a Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor." ABC-CLIO, 2007.Silbey, David. "A War of Frontier and Empire: the Philippine-American War, 1899-1902." Hill and Wang, 2007.
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Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy is a renowned Filipino leader and independence fighter. He was considered the Philippines first and youngest President. Aguinaldo was instrumental in the Philippine independence during the Philippine revolution against Spain 1896-1898; after the Philippines erupted in revolt against the Spaniards in 1896, Aguinaldo won several victories in Cavite Province. He was also a significant part of the Philippine-American war which was a continuation of the Philippine struggle for independence. Aguinaldo subsequently formed an alliance with the Americans during the Spanish-American War, where he aided the American attack on the Philippine Islands.
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was born in the Cavite on the Island of Luzon in the Philippines on March 22, 1869. Aguinaldo was the seventh of eight children of Crispulo Aguinaldo whom was mayor of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit), and Trinidad Famy. Because of his father’s status Aguinaldo was able to live a fairly wealthy life. In 1880 he was educated at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, Manila, but left before graduation to support his mother who had become a widow in 1878. In 1893, the Maura Law was passed to reorganize town governments with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous, changing the designation of town head from gobernadorcillo to capitan municipal effective 1895. On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo followed in his father’s footsteps and was elected town head; he was the first person to hold the title of capitan municipal of Cavite El Viejo. Aguinaldo joined the secret organization called Katipunan which was dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of...
Aguinaldo became mayor of Cavite Viejo on August 1896 and was the local leader of the Katipunan, a revolutionary society that fought against the Spanish. In December 1897 he agreed to leave the Philippines and remain permanently in exile on condition of a substantial financial reward from Spain coupled with the promise of liberal reforms. Whilst in Hong Kong and Singapore he made arrangements with representatives of the American consulates to return to the Philippines to assist the United States in the war against Spain. On his return to the Philippines in 1898 Aguinaldo assisted in the country’s independence of Spain; however they were surrendered to the United States by the Treaty of Paris in December 1898. Jan. 23, 1899, the Malolos Constitution was proclaimed and Aguinaldo was elected president. The ongoing war between the Americans and the Filipinos resulted in guerilla warfare. Two years later Aguinaldo was captured in his secret headquarters at Palanan in northern Luzon. Agui...
Aguinaldo was 93 when President Diosdado Macapagal officially changed Independence Day from July 4 when it was first recognized by the U.S. Government, to June 12, 1898. He proudly carried the flag he had raised in Kawit. Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy died of coronary thrombosis on February 6, 1964 at 94.