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  1. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/.../Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Frederick Barbarossa (German: Friedrich I., Italian: Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152.

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  2. Frederick I | Holy Roman emperor | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-I-Holy...

    Alternative Titles: Frederick Barbarossa, Frederick I Barbarossa. Frederick I, byname Frederick Barbarossa (Italian: Redbeard), (born c. 1123—died June 10, 1190), duke of Swabia (as Frederick III, 1147–90) and German king and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90), who challenged papal authority and sought to establish German predominance in western Europe. He engaged in a long struggle with the cities of northern Italy (1154–83), sending six major expeditions southward.

  3. Biography of Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor

    www.thoughtco.com/crusades-frederick-i...

    Jun 13, 2019 · Fast Facts: Frederick I (Barbarossa) Known For: Holy Roman Emperor and Warrior King. Also Known As: Frederick Hohenstaufen, Frederick Barbarossa, Emperor Frederick I of the Holy Roman Empire. Born: Exact date unknown; circa 1123, birthplace thought to be Swabia. Parents : Frederick II, Duke of Swabia, Judith, the daughter of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, known also as Henry the Black.

  4. Frederick I Barbarossa: A Megalomaniac Roman Emperor On a ...

    www.ancient-origins.net/history/frederick-i...

    Jun 22, 2017 · Emperor Frederick Red Beard Frederick I, known also by his nickname, Barbarossa (which, in Italian, means ‘Red Beard’), was a Holy Roman emperor who lived during the 12th century. During his lifetime, Barbarossa was a popular ruler, and was well-loved by his subjects.

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  5. Once I Was A Clever Boy: Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa

    onceiwasacleverboy.blogspot.com/2020/06/emperor...

    830 years ago, on June 10th 1190 the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I - known as Barbarossa from his red beard - was drowned in Cilicia on his way to participate in the Third Crusade, A golden bust of Emperor Frederick I, dated to circa 1157 and given to his godfather Count Otto of Cappenberg in 1171.

    • Once I Was A Clever Boy
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  7. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor | Historipedia Official Wiki ...

    historipediaofficial.wikia.org/wiki/Frederick_I...
    • Life and Reign
    • Frederick and The Justinian Code
    • Charismatic Leader
    • Legend
    • Issue
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Early years

    Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia (Herzog von Schwaben), and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards...

    Rise to power

    Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark and began negotiations with the Eastern Roman Emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It...

    First Italian Campaign: 1154–55

    Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first, beginning in October 1154, his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and almost immediately encountered resistance to his authority. Obtaining the submission of Milan, he successfully besieged Tortona in early 1155, razing it to the ground. He moved on to Pavia, where he received the Iron Crown and the title of King of Italy. Moving through Bologna and Tuscany, he was soon...

    The increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy led to a revival in the study of the Justinian Code, a Latin legal system that had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law and had a copy of it. The historian Norman Cantor described Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) as "the greatest legal code ever devised". It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law (as seen by the men of the Justinian system), the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the rig...

    Historians have compared Frederick to Henry II of England. Both were considered the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age. Each possessed a rare combination of qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: longevity, boundless ambition, extraordinary organizing skill, and greatness on the battlefield. Both were handsome and proficient in courtly skills, without appearing effeminate or affected. Both came to the throne in the prime of manhood. Each had an element of learning, without being considered impractical intellectuals but rather more inclined to practicality. Each found himself in the possession of new legal institutions that were put to creative use in governing. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, without being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the 12th century. In making final decisions, each relied solely upon his own judgment,and both we...

    Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia or Mount Untersberg in Bavaria, Germany, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A similar story, set in Sicily, was earlier attested about his grandson, Frederick II. To garner political support the German Empire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Monument, which declared Kaiser Wilhelm Ithe reincarnation of Frederick; the 1896 dedication occurred on 18 June, the day of Frederick's coronation. In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend bec...

    Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg, did not produce any issue and was annulled. From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy,he had the following children: 1. Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicilybut died before they could be married. 2. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). 3. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). 4. Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabiaafter the death of his older brother. 5. Gisela (October/November 1168 – 1184). 6. Otto I, Count of Burgundy(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). 7. Conrad II, Duke of Swabiaand Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). 8. Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy). 9. William (June/July 1176 – in infancy). 10. Philip of Swabia (August 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) King of Germany in 1198. 11...

    In Victor Hugo's romantic play Les Burgraves(1843), Frederick (as character Frédéric de Hohenstaufen) returns many years after he was presumed dead, as expected by some medieval legends.
    Cyrus Townsend Brady's Hohenzollern; a Story of the Time of Frederick Barbarossa(1901) begins with a dedication to "the descendants of the great Germanic race who in Europe, in America, and in the...
    Land of Unreason (1941), by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt, mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
    John Crowley's novel Little, Big(1981) features Frederick Barbarossa as a character in modern times, awoken from his centuries of sleep. In the book, he becomes the President of the United States a...
    German monarchs family tree
    Dukes of Swabia family tree
    Operation Barbarossa, the codename of the German invasion of the Soviet Unionin 1941.

    Template:Wikisource author 1. MSN Encarta – Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire) (Archived2009-10-31) 2. Famous Men of the Middle Ages – Frederick Barbarossa 3. Charter given by Emperor Frederick for the bishopric of Bamberg showing the Emperor's seal, 6.4.1157 . Taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University

    • 1122
    • Conrad III
    • 30 June 1178, Arles
    • 1152–1190
  8. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman...
    • Life and Reign
    • Frederick and The Justinian Code
    • Charismatic Leader
    • Legend
    • Issue
    • Frederick Barbarossa in Fiction
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Early years

    Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of Swabia, and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental p...

    Rise to power

    Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark and began negotiations with the Eastern Roman Emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It...

    First Italian Campaign: 1154–55

    Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first, beginning in October 1154 his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and almost immediately began encountering resistance to his authority. Obtaining the submission of Milan, he successfully besieged Tortona in early 1155, razing it to the ground before moving to Pavia where he received the Iron Crown, and with it, the title of King of Italy. Moving through Bologna and Tusc...

    With the increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy, a revival in the study of the Justinian Code occurred. This was a Latin legal system which had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law, and had a copy of it. Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) has been described as the greatest code of law ever devised. It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law, the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the right to rule both Germany and northern Italy. In...

    Historians have compared Henry II of England to Frederick Barbarossa. Both were considered the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age. Each had a rare combination of qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries. Each possessed longevity, boundless ambition, extraordinary organizing skill, and greatness on the battlefield. Both men were handsome and proficient in courtly skills, without appearing effeminate or affected. Both came to the throne in the prime of manhood. Each had an element of learning, without being considered impractical intellectuals, but rather more inclined to practicality. Each found himself in the possession of new legal institutions which were put to creative use in governing. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, without being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the twelfth century. In making final decisions, each relied solely upon...

    Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia or Mount Untersberg in Bavaria, Germany, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A similar story, set in Sicily, was earlier attested about his grandson, Frederick II. To garner political support the German Empire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Monument, which declared Kaiser Wilhelm Ithe reincarnation of Frederick; the 1896 dedication occurred on 18 June, the day of Frederick’s coronation. In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend bec...

    Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg, did not produce any issue. From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy, he had the following children: 1. Sophie (1161–1187), married to Margrave William VI of Montferrat. 2. Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicilybut died before they could be married. 3. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). 4. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). 5. Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabiaafter the death of his older brother. 6. Gisela(October/November 1168 – 1184). 7. Otto I, Count of Burgundy(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). 8. Conrad II, Duke of Swabiaand Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). 9. Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy). 10. William (June/July 1176 – in infancy). 11. Philip of Swabia (August 1177 – kille...

    Cyrus Townsend Brady's Hohenzollern; a Story of the Time of Frederick Barbarossa(1901) begins with a dedication to "the descendants of the great Germanic race who in Europe, in America, and in the...
    Umberto Eco's novel Baudolino(2000) is set partly at Frederick's court, and also deals with the mystery of Frederick's death. The imaginary hero, Baudolino, is the Emperor's adopted son and confidant.
    John Crowley's novel Little, Big(1981) features Frederick Barbarossa as a character in modern times, awoken from his centuries of sleep. In the book, he becomes the President of the United States a...
    The Land of Unreason, by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt, mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
    German monarchs family tree
    Dukes of Swabia family tree
    MSN Encarta – Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire) (Archived2009-10-31)
    Charter given by Emperor Frederick for the bishopric of Bamberg showing the Emperor's seal, 6.4.1157 . Taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University
    Texts on Wikisource:
  9. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I - 1155-1190

    holyromanempireassociation.com/holy-roman-emperor...

    Frederick I (German: Friedrich; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155.

  10. Friedrich I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor - geni family tree

    www.geni.com/people/Friedrich-I-Barbarossa-Holy...

    Friedrich I "Barbarossa" von Hohenstaufen, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches. Spanish: Emperador Federico I Hohenstaufen, "Barbarroja". Also Known As: "Friederich I Barbarossa the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age.", "Federico Barbaroja; Friedrich III. Herzog von Schwaben".

    • Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick V, Duke of Swabia
    • Frederick II, Duke of Swabia
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