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- Regnal Calendar Table
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For centuries, English official public documents have been dated according to the regnal years of the ruling monarch. Traditionally, parliamentary statutes are referenced by regnal year, e.g. the Occasional Conformity Act 1711 is officially referenced as "10 Anne c. 6" (read as "the sixth chapter of the statute of the parliamentary session that sat in the 10th year of the reign of Queen Anne"). In the event of a second session, or a second Parliament, in the same regnal year the chapter numbering would reset. As a result either an "s. 2" or "sess. 2" to indicate the second session, or an "Stat. 2" to indicate a second Parliament would be added. For example, the Queen Regent's Prerogative Act 1554 is cited as "1 Mary s. 3 c. 1" because it was the first act passed in the third session of the parliament begun in the first year of the reign of Queen Mary, and the Riot Act is cited as "1 Geo 1 Stat. 2. c. 5.", being the fifth act passed in the second parliament of the first year of the r...
To calculate the regnal year from a particular date, one subtracts the first regnal year from the calendar year in question. The year is not adjusted if the month and day falls before the regnal date, and if it falls on or after the regnal date, add one. Finally — for the regnal year of William III after Mary’s death (that is, from 28 December 1694 onwards) — one also adds 6. 1. Example 1: 4 July 1776. This falls in the reign of George III, whose first regnal year is 1760; so 1776 – 1760 = 16th year of his reign (4 July is before 25 October). 2. Example 2: 2 May 1662. This is in the reign of Charles II, whose first regnal year is 1649. So 1662 – 1649 = 13, add 1 because 2 May is after 30 January, so the date falls in the 14th regnal year of Charles II. 3. Example 3: 31 December 1695. This falls in the reign of William IIIalone (after Mary’s death), whose "first" regnal year is 1694; so 1695 – 1694 = 1, add 1 because 31 December is after 28 December, and also add 6 because the date i...House of Commons (1802) [9 June 1660]. Journal of the House of Commons: volume 8: 1660-1667. pp. 59–61.
Cheney, C. R.; Jones, Michael, eds. (2000). A Handbook of Dates for Students of British History. Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks. 4 (Revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Pres...
- The Roman Conquest of Britain
- The Battle of The Winwaed
- The Battle of Stamford Bridge
- The Edwardian Conquest of Wales
- The Declaration of Arbroath
- The Battle of Sluys
- The Act of Union
- The Slave Trade Act
- The Battle of Waterloo
- World War I
In 55 B.C., Julius Caesar initiated the invasion. But it was only in AD 43 when the Romans under Emperor Claudius gradually conquered Britain. Different legions were sent to conquer various parts of Southern Britain. There were accounts of Roman resistance, including King Caratacus in AD 47. However, he lost the battle. The Roman conquest had a great impact on the British culture.
This historical event was a battle between religions. Oswiu, the Christian King of Northumbria battled against King Penda of Mercia who promoted paganism among his coalition across England and Wales. The two armies fought in the river banks of Winwaed. King Oswiu promised the Lord to build 12 monasteries if he will win the battle. Successfully, Penda’s armies were destroyed. King Penda was converted to Christian, resulting in the Christian dominance in England and Wales.
The Roman Conquest resulted in the establishment of Britain as a European Nation. In the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066, they debated where Britain would belong to – in Western Europe or in the Nordic Arc. Harold Godwinson expelled the Vikings from England. The Vikings remained a menace to Roman Catholic civilization. Later on, William the Conqueror defeated Harold’s armies, placing England into the family of Western European nations.
After the death of King Henry III, his son Edward I became the new King of England. Edward generally disliked the Celts. Thus, he started a conquest of Wales in three separate campaigns. In 1277, Edward sent a huge English army in the North Wales Coast. The Welsh led by Dafydd, Llewelyn’s brother, started a revolt against the English but later on tried and executed. The second campaign was Democratic. Edward was obliged to call a parliament. Thus, parliamentary democracy has been rooted in the English subjection of Wales.
The Declaration of Arbroath pertained to the declaration of Scottish Independence in 1320. After the Battle of Bannockburn, the English armies had been banished from Scotland. However, there were still vulnerabilities to invasion from the south. With this, Scotland issued the Declaration of Arbroath, a plea submitted to Pope John XXII to confirm the sovereignty of Scotland.
The Battle of Sluys in 1340 was a major turning point in the Hundred Years’ War. It started after a series of disagreements between the Kings of England and the Kings of France about land ownership. By the 14th century, France occupied English territories in Europe. They also began to build their navies, especially in waters. With this, the English started a revolt. They destroyed a majority of the French ships and succeeded. The English victory at Sluys marked the most important maritime success in Europe.
During the 13th and 14th centuries, English armies tried to conquer Scotland through military force. It was until in 1707 when they agreed to the Act of Union. This was composed of two Acts of Parliament involving Scotland and England. Through the Acts of Union, the two kingdoms became united on One Kingdom. Basically, the two nations shared the same monarch government. They also shared one military and engineering prowess. This was considered as the most successful nation union in world history.
In 1787, a Committee for the Abolition of Slave Trade was formed by the Evangelical English Protestants. One of the most active anti-slave campaigners was William Wilberforce. They call for the absolute end of slavery in the British Empire. In 1807, the Slave Trade Act was passed the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It abolished slave trade across Britain. It also encouraged other European states to abolish slavery. Moreover, it stopped the exportation of slaves to the United States.
The French army started another conquest in Europe under Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon rose to power during the French Revolution, conquering various parts of Europe. British-led Allied Armies under Wellington and Prussian commands defeated Napoleon and the French army at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. This marked the absolute end of French army’s plan of conquering Europe.
The First World War was one of the most remarkable events in the history, not just affecting Europe, but the world. It started in July 1914 when the Allies (Great Britain, Italy, France, and Russia) fought against the Central Powers (Germany, Turkey, and Austria-Hungary). The Allies won the war when the United States became an entry to their force. The war destroyed three big empires. Over nine million soldiers and seven million civilians died in the war.
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May 29, 2012 · 871-899 AD- Alfred the Great becomes the first king of united England. New laws are formed and religion as well as education experience revival. 896 AD- Alfred the Great defeats and sends back Vikings from England. 919 AD- Henry 1 assumes the throne becoming the founder of the medieval German State.
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Jul 19, 2021 · 1 Pre-Norman Conquest (through 1066) 2 The Reign of the House of Normandy (1066-1135) 3 The Reigns of the Houses of Blois & Anjou (1135-1216) 4 The Reign of the House of Plantagenet (1216-1399) 5 The Reigns of the Houses of Lancaster & York (1399-1485) 6 Other Medieval Collections.
Jun 24, 2021 · Timeline of World History, A.D. Unfortunately, since the scholars designing the new calendar didn't have the concept of zero, the new Gregorian calendar is calculated to start at year 1, so we go directly from December 31, 1 BC to January 1, 1 AD thereby making all the easy calculations of date intervals off by one.
The 14th century in America probably also brought decline of the Mississippian culture, especially in the northern states. Dendroclimatology suggests that severe droughts ravaged the American Southwest and especially the Southern Plains early in the period, leading to a rapid cultural decline.
LIBERTY! THE TIMELINE . Freedom & justice go hand in hand . 1st CENTURY BC - AD 6th CENTURY . 7th - 11th CENTURY . 12TH CENTURY . 13th CENTURY . 14th CENTURY . 15th CENTURY . 16th CENTURY . 17th CENTURY 1600-1644 . 17th CENTURY 1645-1699 . 18th CENTURY 1700-1764 . 18th CENTURY 1765-1775 . 18th CENTURY 1776-1786 . 18th CENTURY 1787-1799 . 19th ...
- Revelations of Divine Love
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- Further Reading
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The English city of Norwich, where Julian probably lived all her life, was second in importance to London during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and at the centre of the country's primary region for agriculture and trade.[note 2] During her life Norwich suffered terribly when the Black Death reached the city. The disease may have killed over half the population and returned in subsequent outbreaks up to 1387. Julian was alive during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, when the city was overwhelmed by rebel forces led by Geoffrey Litster, later executed by Henry le Despenser after his peasant army was overwhelmed at the Battle of North Walsham. As Bishop of Norwich, Despenser zealously opposed Lollardy, which advocated reform of the Catholic Church, and a number of Lollards were burnt at the stakeat Lollard's Pit, just outside the city. Norwich may have been one of the most religious cities in Europe at that time, with its cathedral, friaries, churches and recluses' cells dominati...
Uniquely for the mystics of the Middle Ages, Julian wrote about her visions. She was an anchoress from at least the 1390s, and was the greatest English mystic of her age, by virtue of the visions she experienced and her literary achievement, but almost nothing about her life is known. What little is known about her comes from a handful of sources. She provides a few scant comments about the circumstances of her revelations in her book Revelations of Divine Love, of which one fifteenth-century...
According to Julian's book Revelations of Divine Love, at the age of thirty, and when she was perhaps an anchoress already, Julian fell seriously ill. On 8May 1373 a curate was administering the last rites of the Catholic Church to her, in anticipation of her death. As he held a crucifixabove the foot of her bed, she began to lose her sight and feel physically numb, but gazing on the crucifix she saw the figure of Jesus begin to bleed. Over the next several hours, she had a series of fifteen...
The few autobiographical details Julian included in the Short Text, including her gender, were suppressed when she wrote her longer text later in life. Historians are not even sure of her actual name. It is generally thought to be taken from St. Julian's Church in Norwich, but it was also used in its own right as a girl's name in the Middle Ages, and so could have been her actual Christian name. Julian's writings indicate that she was born in 1343 or late 1342, and died after 1416. She was si...
Julian of Norwich was, according to the historian Henrietta Leyser, "beloved in the twentieth century by theologians and poets alike". Her writings are unique, as no other works by an English anchoress have survived, although it is possible that some anonymous works may have been written by women. In 14th century England, when women were generally barred from high status positions, their knowledge of Latin would have been limited, and it is more likely that they read and wrote in English. The historian Janina Ramirez has suggested that by choosing to write in her vernacular language, a precedent set by other medieval writers, Julian was "attempting to express the inexpressible" in the best way possible. Nothing written by Julian was ever mentioned in any bequests, nor written for a specific readership, or influenced other medieval authors,and almost no references were made of her writings from the time they were written until the beginning of the 20th century. Julian was largely unk...
Julian of Norwich is now recognised as one of England's most important mystics. For the theologian Denys Turner the core issue Julian addresses in Revelations of Divine Love is "the problem of sin". Julian says that sin is behovely, which is often translated as 'necessary', 'appropriate', or 'fitting'. Julian lived in a time of turmoil, but her theology was optimistic and spoke of God's omnibenevolence and love in terms of joy and compassion. Revelations of Divine Love"contains a message of optimism based on the certainty of being loved by God and of being protected by his Providence." The most characteristic element of her mystical theology was a daring likening of divine love to motherly love, a theme found in the Biblical prophets, as in Isaiah 49:15. According to Julian, God is both our mother and our father. As Caroline Walker Bynum showed, this idea was also developed by Bernard of Clairvaux and others from the 12thcentury onward. Some scholars think this is a metaphor rather...
Since 1980, Julian is remembered in the Church of England with a Lesser Festival on 8 May. The Episcopal Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Churchalso commemorate her on 8 May. She has not been formally beatified or canonised in the Roman Catholic Church, so she is not currently listed in the Roman Martyrology or on the liturgical calendar of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. However, she is popularly venerated by Catholics as a holy woman of God, and is therefore at times referred to as "Saint", "Blessed", or "Mother" Julian.Julian's feast day in the Roman Catholic tradition (by popular celebration) is on 13 May. In 1997, Father Giandomenico Mucci reported that Julian of Norwich is on the waiting list to be declared a Doctor of the Church. In light of her established veneration, it is possible she will first be given an 'equivalent canonization', in which she is decreed a saint by the Pope, without the full canonizationprocess being followed. At a General Audience on 1 Dec...
Her cell in the church yard did not remain empty after her death. In 1428 Julian(a) Lampett moved in while Edith Wilton was the prioress responsible for the church. Lampit/Lampett was in the cell until 1478 when Margaret Pygotwas the prioress.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church quotes from Revelations of Divine Love in its explanation of how God can draw a greater good, even from evil. Pope Benedict XVI dedicated his general audience catechesisof 1 December 2010 to Julian of Norwich. The poet T. S. Eliot incorporated "All shall be well, and all shall be well, and all manner of thing shall be well", as well as Julian's "the ground of our beseeching" from her fourteenth revelation into his poem "Little Gidding", the fourth of his F...
Julian in Norfolk and Norwich
In 2013 the University of East Angliahonoured Julian by naming its new study centre the Julian Study Centre. Norwich's Julian Week, an annual celebration of Julian, was begun in 2013. Organised by The Julian Centre, events held around the city included concerts, lectures, workshops and tours, with the stated aim of "educating all interested people about Julian of Norwich" and "presenting her as a cultural, historical, literary, spiritual, and religious figure of international significance". T...
Selected editions of Revelations of Divine Love 1. Cressy, R.F.S. (1670). "XVI Revelations of Divine Love, shewed to a devout servant of Our Lord, called Mother Juliana, an Anchorete of Norwich: Who lived in the Dayes of King Edward the Third". British Library Digitised Books. British Library. Retrieved 15 February 2019. 2. Collins, Henry, ed. (1877). Revelations of divine love, shewed to a devout Anchoress, by name Mother Julian of Norwich. London: T. Richardson. 3. Warrack, Grace, ed. (1901). Revelations of Divine Love, Recorded by Julian, Anchoress at Norwich, 1373 (1st ed.). London: Methuen and Company. OCLC 560165491. (The second edition (1907) is available online from the Internet Archive .) 4. Skinner, John, ed. (1997). Revelation of love. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-48756-6. 5. Beer, Frances, ed. (1998). Revelations of divine love, translated from British Library Additional MS 37790 : the motherhood of God : an excerpt, translated from British Library MS Sloane 2477....Salih, Sarah; Baker, Denise Nowakowski, eds. (2009). Julian of Norwich's legacy: medieval mysticism and post-medieval reception. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-23-010162-3.Tanner, J.R.; Previté-Orton, C.W.; Brooke, Z.N., eds. (1932). Cambridge Medieval History. Volume VII. Cambridge University Press. |volume= has extra text (help)The Julian Centre, official website of the centre devoted to Julian, located next to St. Julian's Church, Norwich. The website contains information about the Companions of Julian.Julian of Norwich: her Showing of Love and its Contextproduced by the Umilta website.The Search for the Lost Manuscript, a BBCdocumentary on YouTube about Julian of Norwich, her writings and how her writings survived to become published books.