From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Type of federal political system based on the institution of regions based on ethnicity or race. Ethiopian federalism, which is multi-ethnic or multi-national federalism, is an ethnic based federal system of national government in which the federated regional or state units are defined by ethnicity.
Federalism is a mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government (the central or "federal" government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system, dividing the powers between the two.
Federalism in the United States is the constitutional division of power between U.S. state governments and the federal government of the United States. Since the founding of the country, and particularly with the end of the American Civil War, power shifted away from the states and toward the national government. The progression of federalism includes dual, cooperative, and new federalism.
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The full name of the republic is "United States of America". No other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party (e.g. Charles T. Schenck v. United States). The terms "Government of the United States of America" or "United States Government" are often used in official documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term "Federal Government" is often used, and the term "National Government" is sometimes used. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government (e.g. Federal Bureau of Investigation, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Park Service). Because the seat of government is in Washington, D.C., "Washington" is commonly used as a metonymfor the federal government.
The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, in which power is shared between the federal government and state governments. The interpretation and execution of these principles, including what powers the federal government should have and how those powers can be exercised, have been debated ever since the adoption of the Constitution. Some make a case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states, or other recognized entities. Since the American Civil War, the powers of the federal government have generally expanded greatly, although there have been periods since that time of legislative branch dominance (e.g., the decades immediately following the Civil War) or when states' rightsproponents have succeeded in limiting federal power through legislative action, executive prerogative or by a constitutional interpretation by the courts. One of the theor...
The United States Congress, under Article I of the Constitution, is the legislative branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The vice president is the second-highest official in rank of the federal government. The vice president's duties and powers are established in the legislative branch of the federal government under Article 1, Section 3, Clauses 4 and 5 as the president of the Senate; this means that they are the designated presiding officer of the Senate. In that capacity, the vice president has the authority (ex officio, for they are not an elected member of the Senate) to cast a tie-breaking vote. Pursuant...
Cabinet, executive departments, and agencies
The daily enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the president and approved with the "advice and consent" of the U.S. Senate, form a council of advisers generally known as the president's "Cabinet". Once confirmed, these "cabinet officers" serve at the pleasure of the president. In addition to de...
The Judiciary, under Article III of the Constitution, explains and applies the laws. This branch does this by hearing and eventually making decisions on various legal cases.
The budget document often begins with the president's proposal to Congress recommending funding levels for the next fiscal year, beginning October 1 and ending on September 30 of the year following. The fiscal year refers to the year in which it ends. For fiscal year (FY) 2018, the federal government spent $4.11 trillion. Spending equalled 20.3% of gross domestic product (GDP), equal to the 50-year average.The deficit equalled $779 billion, 3.8 percent of GDP. Tax revenue amounted to $3.33 trillion, with receipt categories including individual income taxes ($1,684B or 51%), Social Security/Social Insurance taxes ($1,171B or 35%), and corporate taxes ($205B or 6%).
Suffrage, known as the ability to vote, has changed significantly over time. In the early years of the United States, voting was considered a matter for state governments, and was commonly restricted to white men who owned land. Direct elections were mostly held only for the U.S. House of Representatives and state legislatures, although what specific bodies were elected by the electorate varied from state to state. Under this original system, both senators representing each state in the U.S. Senate were chosen by a majority vote of the state legislature. Since the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, members of both houses of Congress have been directly elected. Today, U.S. citizens have almost universal suffrage under equal protection of the laws from the age of 18, regardless of race, gender, or wealth. The only significant exception to this is the disenfranchisement of convicted felons, and in some states former felons as well. Under the U.S. Constitution, the repre...
State governments have the greatest influence over most Americans' daily lives. The Tenth Amendmentprohibits the federal government from exercising any power not delegated to it by the Constitution; as a result, states handle the majority of issues most relevant to individuals within their jurisdiction. Because state governments are not authorized to print currency, they generally have to raise revenue through either taxes or bonds. As a result, state governments tend to impose severe budget cuts or raise taxes any time the economy is faltering. Each state has its own written constitution, government and code of laws. The Constitution stipulates only that each state must have, "a Republican Government". Therefore, there are often great differences in law and procedure between individual states, concerning issues such as property, crime, health and education, amongst others. The highest elected official of each state is the Governor, with below him being the Lieutenant Governor. Each...
Greenstein, Fred I. et al. Evolution of the modern presidency : a bibliographical survey (1977) bibliography and annotation of 2500 scholarly books and articles. online4
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy with three separate branches of government, including a bicameral legislature. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, NATO, and other international organizations.
Corporative federalism is a system of federalism not based on the common federalist idea of relative land area or nearest spheres of influence for governance, but on fiduciary jurisdiction to corporate personhood in which groups that are considered incorporated members of their own prerogative structure by willed agreement can delegate their individual effective legislature within the overall ...
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The executive branch is the part of the government that enforces the law. Members of the U.S. Electoral College elect a President, who is the leader of the executive branch. The President is also the leader of the Armed Forces. The President cannot make laws. This is a "check" on the President's power, so he cannot make laws to give himself more power. However, when the Legislative branch passes a law, the President can decide whether or not to vetothe law. In this way, the President can "check" the power of the Legislature. The President may also make "executive orders" to make sure that people follow the law. One famous executive order was President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Another was President Dwight D. Eisenhower's order to send 1,200 soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division to allow the Little Rock Nine into a school that refused to admit African Americanstudents. The President is in charge of many departments that control much of the day-to-day business o...
The Judiciary branch is made up of federal courts: the United States Supreme Court; appellate (appeals) courts, and district courts. The Judicial branch interpretsthe laws. This means that if there is a question about what a law means, or whether something is illegal, these courts decide. The duties of the judicial branch include: 1. Interpreting federal laws; 2. Settling legal arguments; 3. Punishingpeople who break federal laws; 4. Hearing civil cases; 5. Protecting individual rights granted by the Constitution; 6. Deciding whether people accused of breaking federal criminal laws are guiltyor not guilty; 7. Acting as a check upon the legislative and executive branches of government, to make sure neither gets too powerful. Most cases brought before the Supreme Court are appeals that have been triedin the district or appellate courts. Once a decision has been made by the Supreme Court, that is the final decision. Only another Supreme Court decision, in another case, can change it. O...
The legislative branch is the part of the government that makes laws. The legislative branch is called Congress. Congress is divided into two "houses."
Executive branch: 1. President of the United States 1.1. United States federal executive departments Judicial branch: 1. Supreme Court of the United States 1.1. United States courts of appeals 1.1.1. United States district courts Legislative branch: 1. United States Congress 1.1. United States House of Representatives 1.2. United States Senate The whole federal government is based on: 1. Constitution of the United States 2. Checks and balancesHow Laws are Made: For young learners, grade schoolers, middle schoolers, and high schoolers(from the U.S. House of Representatives)