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      • Examples of religiously derived legal codes include Jewish halakha, Islamic sharia, Christian canon law (applicable within a wider theological conception in the church, but in modern times distinct from secular state law), and Hindu law. Contents
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_law
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    What is an example of Islamic Penal Law?

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  2. May 29, 2018 · For example, Islamic penal law only prescribes punishments for six specific crimes: adultery or fornication, false accusation of adultery or fornication, robbery, drinking intoxicants, and banditry. Other offenses, except injury and murder, which are covered by lex talionis, or the payment of indemnity, are subject to discretionary punishments that may be determined by the ruler or the judges he has appointed.

    • Introduction
    • Formative Influences
    • Opposition to Philosophy
    • Early Islamic Philosophy
    • Logic
    • Metaphysics
    • Natural Philosophy
    • Philosophy of Education
    • Other Fields
    • Later Islamic Philosophy

    By way of introduction Islamic philosophy refers to philosophy produced in an Islamic society. Islamic philosophy is a generic term that can be defined and used in different ways. In its broadest sense it means the world view of Islam, as derived from the Islamic texts concerning the creation of the universe and the will of the Creator. In another ...

    Islamic philosophy as the name implies refers to philosophical activity within the Islamic milieu. The main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself (especially ideas derived and interpreted from the Quran) and Greek philosophy which the early Muslims inherited as a result of conquests, along with pre-Islami...

    Some Muslims oppose the idea of philosophy as un-Islamic. The popular Salafist website IslamQA.info (supervised by Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid of Saudi Arabia) declares philosophy to be an “alien entity”: The fatwa claims that “the majority of fuqaha’ [experts in fiqh] have stated that it is haraam to study philosophy, and lists some of thes...

    Main article: Early Islamic philosophy In early Islamic thought, which refers to philosophy during the “Islamic Golden Age”, traditionally dated between the 8th and 12th centuries, two main currents may be distinguished. The first is Kalam, which mainly dealt with Islamic theological questions, and the other is Falsafa, which was founded on interpr...

    Main article: Logic in Islamic philosophy In early Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. Sharia (Islamic law) placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam, but this approach was later displaced by ideas from Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy with the rise of th...

    Cosmological and ontological arguments

    Further information: Proof of the Truthful, Kalam cosmological argument, Existence of God, The Existence and Unity of God, and All Traditional Arguments for God’s Existence Avicenna’s proof for the existence of God was the first ontological argument, which he proposed in the Metaphysics section of The Book of Healing. This was the first attempt at using the method of a priori proof, which utilizes intuition and reason alone. Avicenna’s proof of God’s existence is unique in that it can be clas...

    Distinction between essence and existence

    Further information: God, His Essence And Attributes and What Are Essence And Attributes Of God, Can We Describe Him? Islamic philosophy, imbued as it is with Islamic theology, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism the difference between essence and existence. Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. This was first described by Avicenna’s works on metaphysics, who was himself influenced by al-Farabi....

    Resurrection

    Further information: Resurrection, General Arguments About The Resurrection, and Quranic Arguments About The Resurrection Ibn al-Nafis wrote the Theologus Autodidactusas a defense of “the system of Islam and the Muslims’ doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world.” The book presents rational arguments for bodily resurrection and the immortality of the human soul, using both demonstrative reasoning and material f...

    Atomism

    Atomistic philosophies are found very early in Islamic philosophy, and represent a synthesis of the Greek and Indian ideas. Like both the Greek and Indian versions, Islamic atomism was a charged topic that had the potential for conflict with the prevalent religious orthodoxy. Yet it was such a fertile and flexible idea that, as in Greece and India, it flourished in some schools of Islamic thought. The most successful form of Islamic atomism was in the Asharite school of philosophy, most notab...

    Cosmology

    There are several cosmological verses in the Qur’an (610–632) which some modern writers have interpreted as foreshadowing the expansion of the universe and possibly even the Big Bang theory: In contrast to ancient Greek philosophers who believed that the universe had an infinite past with no beginning, medieval philosophers and theologians developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning. This view was inspired by the creation myth shared by the three Abrahamic reli...

    Evolution

    Further information: Islamic Views on Evolution

    In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a maktab, which dates back to at least the 10th century. Like madrasahs (which referred to higher education), a maktab was often attached to a mosque. In the 11th century, Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in the West), in one of his books, wrote a chapter dealing with the maktab entitled “...

    Epistemology

    Avicenna’s most influential theory in epistemology is his theory of knowledge, in which he developed the concept of tabula rasa. He argued that the “human intellect at birth is rather like a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know” and that knowledge is attained through “empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts” which is developed through a “syllogistic method of reasoning; observations lead to...

    Eschatology

    Main article: Islamic eschatology, Last Judgement, Resurrection Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. Eschatology relates to one of the six articles of faith (aqidah) of Islam. Like the other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul (though Jews do not necessarily view the soul as eternal); the r...

    Legal philosophy

    Main articles: Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) and Sharia Sharia (شَرِيعَةٌ) refers to the body of Islamic law. The term means “way” or “path”; it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence. Fiqh is the term for Islamic jurisprudence, made up of the rulings of Islamic jurists. A component of Islamic studies, Fiqh expounds the methodology by which Islamic law is derived f...

    The death of Ibn Rushd (Averroës) effectively marks the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Arabic School, and philosophical activity declined significantly in western Islamic countries, namely in Islamic Spain and North Africa, though it persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particul...

  3. Islamic philosophy emerged from its theological background when Muslim thinkers began to study this foreign tradition, became competent students of the ancient philosophers and scientists, criticized and developed their doctrines, clarified their relevance for the questions raised by the theologians, and showed what light they threw on the fundamental issues of revelation, prophecy, and the divine law.

  4. first, its whole tone is reminiscent of maimonides’ famous arab predecessor alfarabi (see section 9.3 below), whom maimonides held in such high esteem as to claim that his thoughts were finer than finely sifted flour (see marx 1935, 378–80). 4 in selected aphorisms, for example, alfarabi moves from a discussion of the way the individual soul is …

  5. The philosophy of Islam may thus be seen as a broad field of philosophical research pertaining to the guidance which Allah has provided for mankind through His religion: “Inna al-dln 'inda Allah al-Islam”. [“Verily, the religion of Allah is Islam.”.] A good example of the kind of study to be included in the philosophy of Islam is an inquiry into the relation between Islam and empiricism. Is Islam inconsistent with empiricism? Is there some form of empiricism that is demanded by Islam?

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