- The fall of the Western Roman Empire took place in 476 AD when the leader of the Goths , Odoacer , removed Emperor Romulus .
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The fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the fall of the Roman Empire or the fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
The Fall of the Roman Empire is a 1964 American epic film directed by Anthony Mann and produced by Samuel Bronston, with a screenplay by Ben Barzman, Basilio Franchina and Philip Yordan. The film stars Sophia Loren , Stephen Boyd , Alec Guinness , James Mason , Christopher Plummer , Mel Ferrer , and Omar Sharif .
With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire finally collapsed – the (Eastern Roman) Emperor Zeno formally abolished it in 480 AD.
- Gibbon's views on religion
- Gibbon's reflections
The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is a six-volume work by the English historian Edward Gibbon. It traces Western civilization from the height of the Roman Empire to the fall of Byzantium. Volume I was published in 1776 and went through six printings. Volumes II and III were published in 1781; volumes IV, V, and VI in 1788–1789. The six volumes cover the history, from 98 to 1590, of the Roman Empire, the history of early Christianity and then of the Roman State Church...
Gibbon offers an explanation for the fall of the Roman Empire, a task made difficult by a lack of comprehensive written sources, though he was not the only historian to attempt it. According to Gibbon, the Roman Empire succumbed to barbarian invasions in large part due to the gradual loss of civic virtue among its citizens. He began an ongoing controversy about the role of Christianity, but he gave great weight to other causes of internal decline and to attacks from outside the Empire. The story
Gibbon's tone was detached, dispassionate, and yet critical. He can lapse into moralisation and aphorism
Numerous tracts were published criticising his work. In response, Gibbon defended his work with the 1779 publication of A Vindication... of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. His remarks on Christianity aroused particularly vigorous attacks, but in the mid-twentieth century, at least one author claimed that "church historians allow the substantial justness of main positions."
Gibbon's comments on the Quran and Muhammad reflected his anti-islamism. He outlined in chapter 33 the widespread tale of the Seven Sleepers, and remarked "This popular tale, which Mahomet might learn when he drove his camels to the fairs of Syria, is introduced, as a divine reve
Gibbon has been accused of antisemitism. He has described the Jews as "a race of fanatics, whose dire and credulous superstition seemed to render them the implacable enemies not only of the Roman government, but also of humankind".
Gibbon challenged Church history by estimating far smaller numbers of Christian martyrs than had been traditionally accepted. The Church's version of its early history had rarely been questioned before. Gibbon, however, knew that modern Church writings were secondary sources, and
Gibbon's initial plan was to write a history "of the decline and fall of the city of Rome", and only later expanded his scope to the whole Roman Empire: If I prosecute this History, I shall not be unmindful of the decline and fall of the city of Rome; an interesting object, to which my plan was originally confined. Although he published other books, Gibbon devoted much of his life to this one work. His autobiography Memoirs of My Life and Writings is devoted largely to his reflections on how the
- Strahan & Cadell, London
- Edward Gibbon
The empire in the east—known today as the Byzantine Empire, but referred to in its time as the "Roman Empire" or by various other names—ended in 1453 with the death of Constantine XI and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
The fall of the Western Roman Empire took place in 476 AD when the leader of the Goths, Odoacer, removed Emperor Romulus. He became King of Italy, and Roman control over the Empire in the west ended. By this time the Western Empire existed in name only, the Emperor no longer could use military, financial or political power.
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In the winter of 180 A.D., the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius fights to keep Germanic barbarians from invading his northern territories on the Danube frontier (a war which in fact had been ongoing for over a decade, with no end in sight as of 180). His deputies are the Greek ex-slave Timonides, a closet Christian, and the stern and honest general Gaius Livius. Livius has close connections with the imperial family, being the lover of Aurelius' philosopher daughter Lucilla and a friend of her brother Commodus. Nevertheless, he is amazed to hear that Aurelius wants to make him his heir. Despite his military obligations the emperor has egalitarian ideals, dreaming of a day when Rome grants equal rights to men of all nations. He knows that he will not live to achieve this end, and trusts Livius to do so more than his charismatic but brutal son. The discovery that his father has effectively disinherited him hurts Commodus imme...
Samuel Bronston announced he would make the film after producing the popular El Cid and King of Kings. It was to be the first of three films made by Bronston written by Philip Yordan - the others being one on the Boxer Rebellion and one on the French Revolution. Anthony Mann was going to direct, with Charlton Heston mentioned as a possible Marcus Aurelius.Richard Harriswas offered a leading role as well. Heston did not want to make the film and Bronston made 55...
It was envisioned that Heston would be cast as Livius, but he turned it down after finding out that Loren would be the leading lady. (Heston had co-starred with Loren in El Cid and had not got on well with her. Thus, he had no desire to work with her again.) The part had also been offered to Kirk Douglas, who turned it down as well. Boyd, who played opposite to Heston in Ben-Hur, ultimately got the part. Richard Harris was originally cast as Commodus, but he was replaced...
The film was shot in 70mm Ultra Panavision by Robert Krasker, and the historian Will Durant was engaged to advise on period detail and plot.
A novelization was published, also titled The Fall of the Roman Empire, written by Harry Whittington (Fawcett Publications, Inc. & Frederick Muller Ltd., 1964).The cover of the novel is a screenshot from the film. The text of the novel provides a more detailed exposition of the film's plot line. Other covers that were not screenshots of the film were used for this novel of the film.
The film had its World Premiere at the Astoria Theatre, Charing Cross Road, London on March 24 1964 and ran there for 70 weeks. In spite of this the film was a costly financial failure for producer Samuel Bronston who, after making such epics as John Paul Jones (1959), King of Kings (1961), El Cid (1961), and 55 Days at Peking(1963) had to stop all business activities. A bankruptcy notice in the New York Times on 6 August 1965, stated the cost of The Fall of the Roman Empire at $18,436,625. He announced his return with a planned epic about Isabella of Spain, but the film was never made. This was one of the few Ultra Panavision 70 films not exhibited in Cinerama. In later years, Miramax Films would acquire the US distribution rights to the film. After the founders Bob and Harvey Weinstein split with Miramax parent Disney, they formed the Weinstein Company, who currently owns US distribution rights. UK...The Fall of the Roman Empire on IMDbThe Fall of the Roman Empire at Rotten TomatoesThe Fall of the Roman Empire at the TCM Movie Database
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire is the short title of an important book by the 18th century English historian Edward Gibbon. The book traces the Roman Empire—and Western civilization as a whole—from the late first century AD to the fall of the Eastern or Byzantine Empire.
- Edward Gibbon
- history of the Roman Empire
The Fall of the Roman Empire is een Amerikaanse sandalenfilm uit 1964 onder regie van Anthony Mann. The Fall of the Roman Empire De val van het Romeinse Rijk.
The last Western Roman emperor, Romulus Augustus, resigned in 476 AD. The Roman Empire would last another 1,000 years as the Byzantine Empire in the east. The main coin of the Roman Empire was the silver denarius. Later denarii were smaller. Various reasons have been given for the fall of Rome.