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  1. Filiale — Wikipédia › wiki › Filiale

    La filiale constitue une entité morale distincte de la maison mère sur le plan juridique, à la différence d'une succursale, ou encore d'un département de l'organigramme. Les filiales peuvent également elles-mêmes contrôler leurs propres filiales (appelées sous-filiales) et ainsi de suite. Dans ce cas, on a un contrôle en cascade.

  2. Filiale – Wikipedia › wiki › Filiale

    Filiale ist mithin die einer Zentrale untergeordnete Verkaufsstelle, die eine organisatorisch selbständige Einheit darstellt sowie eine Mindest- Betriebsgröße erreicht. Filialen unterscheiden sich von Niederlassungen oder Zweigniederlassungen vor allem dadurch, dass letztere von der Unternehmenszentrale eigene Kompetenzen etwa bei ...

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    Quelle est la définition d'une filiale ?

    Quelle est la filiation d’une filiale ?

    Quelle est la société mère de la filiale ?

    Quel est le contrôle de la filiale ?

  4. Filial church - Wikipedia › wiki › Filial_church

    Ordinarily, a filial church is a parish church which has been constituted by the dismemberment of an older parish. Its rector is really a parish priest, having all the essential rights of such a dignity, but still bound to defer in certain matters to the pastor of the mother church.

  5. Filial piety - Wikipedia › wiki › Filial_piety
    • Terminology
    • in Traditional Texts
    • in East Asian Languages and Cultures
    • in Behavioral Sciences
    • History
    • Developments in Modern Society
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The western term filial piety was originally derived from studies of Western societies, based on Mediterranean cultures. However, filial piety among the ancient Romans, for example, was largely different from the Chinese in its logic and enactment. Filial piety is illustrated by the Chinese character xiao (孝). The character is a combination of the character lao (old) above the character zi (son), that is, an elder being carried by a son. This indicates that the older generation should be supported by the younger generation. In Korean Confucianism, the character 孝 is pronounced hyo (효). In Vietnamese, the character 孝 is written in the Vietnamese alphabet as hiếu. In Japanese, the term is generally rendered in spoken and written language as 親孝行, oyakōkō, adding the characters for parent and conductto the Chinese character to make the word more specific.


    Confucian teachings about filial piety can be found in numerous texts, including the Four Books, that is the Great Learning (Chinese: 大学), the Doctrine of the Mean (Chinese: 中庸), Analects (Chinese: 论语) and the book Mencius, as well as the works Classic of Filial Piety (Chinese: 孝经) and the Book of Rites (Chinese: 礼记) . In the Classic of Filial Piety, Confucius (551–479 BCE) says that "[f]ilial piety is the root of virtue and the basis of philosophy" and modern philosopher Fung Yu-landescribes...

    Detailed descriptions

    Confucian ethics does not regard filial piety as a choice, but rather as an unconditional obligation of the child. The relationship between parents and children is the most fundamental of the five cardinal relationships (Chinese: 五倫; pinyin: wǔlún) described by Confucius in his role ethics, and filial piety, together with fraternal love, underlies this system. It is the fundamental principle of Confucian morality: filial piety was seen as the basis for an orderly society, together with loyalt...

    Relation with society at large

    Filial piety is regarded as a principle that ordered society, without which chaos would prevail. It is described as "an inevitable fact of nature", as opposed to mere convention, and it is seen to follow naturally out of the father–son relationship. In the Chinese tradition of patriarchy, roles are upheld to maintain the harmony of the whole. According to the Neo-Confucian philosopher Cheng Hao(1032–1085 CE), relationships and their corresponding roles "belong to the eternal principle of the...

    Confucian teachings about filial piety have left their mark on East Asian languages and culture. In Chinese, there is a saying that "among hundreds of behaviors, filial piety is the most important one" (Chinese: 百善孝为先; pinyin: bǎi shàn xiào wéi xiān). In modern Chinese, filial piety is rendered with the words Xiào shùn (孝顺), meaning 'respect and obedience'. While China has always had a diversity of religious beliefs, filial piety has been common to almost all of them; historian Hugh D.R. Baker calls respect for the family the one element common to almost all Chinese people. Historian Ch'ü T'ung-tsu stated about the codification of patriarchy in Chinese law that "[i]t was all a question of filial piety". Filial piety also forms the basis for the veneration of the aged, for which the Chinese are known. However, filial piety among the Chinese has led them to be mostly focused on taking care of close kin, and be less interested in wider issues of more distant people:nevertheless, this s...

    Social scientists have done much research about filial piety and related concepts. It is a highly influential factor in studies about Asian families and intergenerational studies, as well as studies on socialization patterns. Filial piety has been defined by several scholars as the recognition by children of the aid and care their parents have given them, and the respect returned by those children. Psychologist K.S. Yang has defined it as a "specific, complex syndrome or set of cognition, affects, intentions, and behaviors concerning being good or nice to one's parents".As of 2006, psychologists measured filial piety in inconsistent ways, which has prevented much progress from being made. Filial piety is defined by behaviors such as daily maintenance, respect and sickness care offered to the elderly. Although in scholarly literature five forms of reverence have been described, multi-cultural researcher Kyu-taik Sunghas added eight more to that, to fully cover the traditional definit...

    Pre-Confucian history

    The origins of filial piety in East Asia lie in ancestor worship, and can already be found in the pre-Confucian period. Epigraphical findings such as oracle bones contain references to filial piety; texts such as the Classic of Changes(10th–4th century BCE) may contain early references to the idea of parallel conception of the filial son and the loyal minister.

    Early Confucianism

    In the T'ang dynasty (6th–10th century), not performing filial piety was declared illegal, and even earlier, during the Han dynasty (2nd century BCE–3rd century CE), this was already punished by beheading.Behavior regarded as unfilial such as mistreating or abandoning one's parents or grandparents, or refusing to complete the mourning period for them was punished by exile and beating, at best. From the Han Dynasty onward, the practice of mourning rites came to be seen as the cornerstone of fi...

    Introduction of Buddhism

    Filial piety is an important aspect of Buddhist ethics since early Buddhism, and was essential in the apologetics and texts of Chinese Buddhism. In the Early Buddhist Texts such as the Nikāyas and Āgamas, filial piety is prescribed and practiced in three ways: to repay the gratitude toward one's parents; as a good karma or merit; and as a way to contribute to and sustain the social order. In Buddhist scriptures, narratives are given of the Buddha and his disciples practicing filial piety towa...

    In 21st-century Chinese societies, filial piety expectations and practice have decreased. One cause for this is the rise of the nuclear family without much co-residence with parents. Families are becoming smaller because of family planning and housing shortages. Other causes of decrease in practice are individualism, the loss of status of elderly, emigration of young people to cities and the independence of young people and women.To amplify this trend, the number of elderly people has increased quickly. The relationship between husband and wife came to be more emphasized, and the extended family less and less. Kinship ties between the husband and wife's families have become more bi-lateral and equal.The way respect to elders is expressed is also changing. Communication with elders tends to become more reciprocal and less one-way, and kindness and courtesy is replacing obedience and subservience.

    Berezkin, Rostislav (21 February 2015), "Pictorial Versions of the Mulian Story in East Asia (Tenth–Seventeenth Centuries): On the Connections of Religious Painting and Storytelling", Fudan Journal...
    Traylor, K.L. (1988), Chinese Filial Piety, Eastern Press
    Xing, G. (2005), "Filial Piety in Early Buddhism", Journal of Buddhist Ethics(12): 82–106
    • hiếu
  6. Filiale - Wikipedia › wiki › Filiale

    Per filiale (o succursale ), in economia aziendale, si intende una sede secondaria (figlia, appunto) di un'organizzazione più vasta. Generalmente il termine riguarda la struttura di società che, nascendo in un luogo ed espandendosi, necessitano di agenzie in zone diverse e distanti.

  7. La Filiale — Wikipédia › wiki › La_Filiale
    • sujet
    • Bibliographie
    • Références
    • Liens Externes

    Le récit est écrit à la première personne dont on devine que c'est l'auteur Sergueï Dovlatov lui-même, dénommé Dalmatov dans le récit. Au milieu des années 1980, Dalmatov a 45 ans. Il est marié et a deux enfants. Il a déjà travaillé dix ans à New York à la station de radio Nouvelle Vague, qui émet vers l'URSS. La rédaction l'envoie à Los Angeles pour le symposium des dissidents russes de Nouvelle Russie. Un matin d'été Dalmatov s'installe dans sa chambre à l'Hôtel Hilton. Dans l'après-midi, il observe avec ironie les querelles et chamailleries des dissidentsoriginaires d'URSS. Le soir il retourne à l'hôtel pour boire un verre et réfléchir à l'absurdité de l'existence. Un jour, vient frapper à la porte de sa chambre Tassia, son ex-femme quittée il y a vingt ans qui était son premier amour. Tassia est aussi immigrée en provenance d'URSS, elle vient de Clevelandpour participer au symposium. À l'en croire elle serait enceinte d'un certain Liova ou peut-être de quelqu'un d'autre. Elle dé...

    Sergueï Dovlatov (trad. Christine Zeytounian-Beloüs), La Filiale, Genève, La Baconnière, 2019 (ISBN 978-2940431984)

    (ru) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en russe intitulé « Филиал (повесть) » (voir la liste des auteurs).

    « Le Congrès de Los Angeles »[archive], Nouveau magazine littéraire
    « Dovlatov, un roman russe »[archive], Le Figaro
    Прототипы героев повести Сергея Довлатова «Филиал»[archive], prototype des héros du récit La Filiale
  8. filiale - English translation – Linguee › translation › filiale

    subsidiary n (often used) (plural: subsidiaries) L'entreprise a créé une nouvelle filiale au Japon. The company created a new subsidiary in Japan. La filiale entre dans le cadre de notre audit. The subsidiary falls within the scope of our audit.

  9. Filial responsibility laws - Wikipedia › wiki › Filial_responsibility_laws

    v. t. e. Filial responsibility laws ( filial support laws, filial piety laws) are laws in the United States that impose a duty, usually upon adult children, for the support of their impoverished parents or other relatives. In some cases the duty is extended to other relatives. Such laws may be enforced by governmental or private entities and ...

  10. Colas (entreprise) — Wikipédia › wiki › Colas_(entreprise)
    • Histoire
    • Activités
    • Travaux réalisés Par Colas
    • Annexes

    La Société routière Colas a été créée en 1929 par Shell et la société Générale d'Entreprise afin d'exploiter la toute première émulsion bitumineuse mise au point en 1922 par deux chimistes anglais, Hugh Alan Mackay et George Samuel Hay. Le nom du groupe dérive de la contraction de l'expression Cold Asphalt(« Asphalte froid »), nom original du procédé. Dès 1930, le groupe s'étend et s'implante aux Antilles, en Afrique du Nord et en Afrique de l'Ouest. En 1961, Colas est introduit à la Bourse de Paris et en 1985, Bouygues devient son actionnaire principal dans le cadre de l'acquisition du groupe SCREG. En 1959, Colas rachète Somaro (aujourd'hui Aximum) et, au début des années 1960, développe ses implantations en Afrique de l'Ouest et s'implante au Canada, en faisant l'acquisition en 1962 d'une société québécoise à l'origine de la création de Sintra. Le groupe s'étend aux États-Unis, grâce à l'acquisition en 1979 d'actifs donnant naissance à la première filiale américaine, Barrett Pavi...

    Activité principale : la route

    Les travaux routiers et la production ou le recyclage de matériaux de construction forment l'activité principale du groupe Colas. Présent en France métropolitaine via ses 6 filiales routières (Colas Île-de-France Normandie, Colas Sud-Ouest, Colas Nord-Est, Colas Midi-Méditerranée, Colas Centre-Ouest et Colas Rhône-Alpes Auvergne[8]), Colas est également implanté en Europe, en Amérique du Nord, en Afrique, dans l'Océan Indien, au Moyen-Orient, dans les départements d'Outre-mer et en Asie-Pacif...

    En avril 2016, Colas annonce son intention de développer un revêtement composé de panneaux photovoltaïques, qui permettrait de produire de l'énergie solaire[15].


    1. Estelle Nouel, « Hervé Le Bouc : nouveau PDG de Colas », Boulogne-Billancourt Information (BBI), no 361,‎ décembre 2007, p.14-15

    Article connexe

    1. Route solaireet autres techniques de piste cyclable et parking solaire

    Lien externe

    1. Site officiel[archive] 2. « La route solaire : le concept »[archive], sur Wattwway by Colas (consulté le 5 avril 2021).Avec 25 m2 de dalles Wattway, on peut alimenter une maison consommant entre 2 500 et 2 700 kWh par an, hors chauffage électrique.À Grave (Pays-Bas), déployées sur une piste cyclable, les dalles Wattway produisent de l’énergie renouvelable qui est renvoyée sur le réseau électrique. 1. Portail des entreprises 2. Portail de la France 3. Portail du bâtiment et des travaux publics

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