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      • From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), also known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of parts of the body's soft tissue. It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly. Symptoms usually include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Necrotizing fasciitis (NF),,the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting.
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  2. Necrotizing fasciitis - Wikipedia

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), also known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of parts of the body's soft tissue. It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly. Symptoms usually include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting.

    • Sudden, spreads rapidly
    • Severe pain, fever, purple colored skin in the affected area
  3. Vibrio vulnificus - Wikipedia

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Vibrio vulnificus is a species of Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped (bacillus), pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Present in marine environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas, V. vulnificus is related to V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera.

  4. Streptococcus - Wikipedia

    Pathogenesis and classification. In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections).

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    Peo­ple usu­ally com­plain of in­tense pain that may seem ex­ces­sive given the ex­ter­nal ap­pear­ance of the skin. Peo­ple ini­tially have signs of in­flam­ma­tion, fever and a fast heart rate. With pro­gres­sion of the dis­ease, often within hours, tis­sue be­comes pro­gres­sively swollen, the skin be­comes dis­col­ored and de­vel­ops blis­ters. Crepi­tusmay be pre­sent and there may be a dis­charge of fluid, said to re­sem­ble "dish-wa­ter". Di­ar­rhea and vom­it­ing are also com­mon symp­toms. In the early stages, signs of in­flam­ma­tion may not be ap­par­ent if the bac­te­ria are deep within the tis­sue. If they are not deep, signs of in­flam­ma­tion, such as red­ness and swollen or hot skin, de­velop very quickly. Skin color may progress to vi­o­let, and blis­ters may form, with sub­se­quent necro­sis (death) of the sub­cu­ta­neous tis­sues. Fur­ther­more, peo­ple with necro­tiz­ing fasci­itis typ­i­cally have a fever and ap­pear sick. Mor­tal­ity rates are as high as 73% if...

    Risk factors

    More than 70% of cases are recorded in peo­ple with at least one of the fol­low­ing clin­i­cal sit­u­a­tions: im­muno­sup­pres­sion, di­a­betes, al­co­holism/drug abuse/smok­ing, ma­lig­nan­cies, and chronic sys­temic dis­eases. For rea­sons that are un­clear, it oc­ca­sion­ally oc­curs in peo­ple with an ap­par­ently nor­mal gen­eral condition. The in­fec­tion be­gins lo­cally at a site of trauma, which may be se­vere (such as the re­sult of surgery), minor, or even non-ap­par­ent.


    Com­mon or­gan­isms in­clude Group A Strep­to­coc­cus (group A strep), Kleb­siella, Clostrid­ium, Es­cherichia coli, Staphy­lo­coc­cus au­reus, and Aeromonas hy­drophila, and oth­ers. Group A strep is con­sid­ered the most com­mon cause of necro­tiz­ing fasciitis. The ma­jor­ity of in­fec­tions are caused by or­gan­isms that nor­mally re­side on the in­di­vid­ual's skin. These skin flora exist as com­men­sals and in­fec­tions re­flect their anatom­i­cal dis­tri­b­u­tion (e.g. per­ineal in­fec...

    "Flesh-eat­ing bac­te­ria" is a mis­nomer, as in truth, the bac­te­ria do not "eat" the tis­sue. They de­stroy the tis­sue that makes up the skin and mus­cle by re­leas­ing tox­ins (vir­u­lence factors).[citation needed]

    Early di­ag­no­sis is dif­fi­cult as the dis­ease often looks early on like a sim­ple su­per­fi­cial skin in­fec­tion. While a num­ber of lab­o­ra­tory and imag­ing modal­i­ties can raise the sus­pi­cion for necro­tiz­ing fasci­itis, the gold stan­dard for di­ag­no­sis is a sur­gi­cal ex­plo­ration in the set­ting of high sus­pi­cion. When in doubt, a small "key­hole" in­ci­sion can be made into the af­fected tis­sue, and if a fin­ger eas­ily sep­a­rates the tis­sue along the fas­cial plane, the di­ag­no­sis is con­firmed and an ex­ten­sive de­bride­mentshould be performed. Com­puted to­mog­ra­phy(CT scan) is able to de­tect ap­prox­i­mately 80% of cases while MRI may pick up slightly more.

    Sur­gi­cal de­bride­ment (cut­ting away af­fected tis­sue) is the main­stay of treat­ment for necro­tiz­ing fasci­itis. Early med­ical treat­ment is often pre­sump­tive; thus, an­tibi­otics should be started as soon as this con­di­tion is sus­pected. Given the dan­ger­ous na­ture of the dis­ease, a high index of sus­pi­cion is needed. Ini­tial treat­ment often in­cludes a com­bi­na­tion of in­tra­venous an­tibi­otics in­clud­ing piperacillin/tazobac­tam, van­comycin, and clin­damycin. Cul­tures are taken to de­ter­mine ap­pro­pri­ate an­tibi­otic cov­er­age, and an­tibi­otics may be changed when cul­ture re­sults are ob­tained. Treat­ment for necro­tiz­ing fasci­itis may in­volve an in­ter­dis­ci­pli­nary care team. For ex­am­ple, in the case of a necro­tiz­ing fasci­itis in­volv­ing the head and neck, the team could in­clude oto­laryn­gol­o­gists, speech pathol­o­gists, in­ten­sivists, in­fec­tious dis­ease spe­cial­ists, and plas­tic sur­geons or oral and max­illo­fa­cial surgeons...

    Necro­tiz­ing fasci­itis af­fects about 0.4 in every 100,000 peo­ple per year in the United States.In some areas of the world it is as com­mon as 1 in every 100,000 people.

    Other names

    Other names have in­cluded phagedaenic ulcer, phage­dena gan­grenous, gan­grenous ulcer, ma­lig­nant ulcer, pu­trid ulcer, and hos­pi­tal gangrene.

    Notable cases

    1. 1994 Lucien Bouchard, former premier of Québec, Canada, who became infected while leader of the federal official opposition Bloc Québécoisparty, lost a leg to the illness. 2. 1994 A cluster of cases occurred in Gloucestershire, in the west of England. Of five confirmed and one probable infection, two died. The cases were believed to be connected. The first two had acquired the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria during surgery, the remaining four were community-acquired.The cases generated muc...

    Necrotizing fasciitis at Curlie
  5. Talk:Necrotizing fasciitis - Wikipedia

    nercotizing fasciitis is a flesh eating bacteria that eats ur face off then kills you because it stabs you in the brain with its many innteanea!!!!

  6. Necrotizing Fasciitis (Flesh-Eating Bacteria): Causes ...

    Flesh-eating bacteria (necrotizing fasciitis) is a rare infection of the skin and tissues below it. It can be deadly if not treated quickly. Necrotizing fasciitis spreads quickly and aggressively...

  7. Necrotizing Fasciitis: Acting Fast Is Key | CDC

    Dec 31, 2019 · There are many types of bacteria that can cause the “flesh-eating disease” called necrotizing fasciitis. Public health experts believe group A Streptococcus (group A strep) are the most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis. This web page only focuses on necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A strep bacteria.

  8. Is Necrotizing Fasciitis (Flesh-Eating Disease) Contagious ...
    • Terminology
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    One of the first descriptions of necrotizing fasciitis came from Hippocrates in the fifth century BC, when he described complications of erysipelas. Though necrotizing fasciitis has existed for many centuries, several more detailed descriptions of this condition were subsequently reported in the 19th and early 20th century. In 1952, Dr. B. Wilson first used the term necrotizing fasciitis to describe this condition, and this term has remained the most commonly used in modern medicine. Other terms that have been used to describe this same condition include flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, suppurative fasciitis, necrotizing cellulitis, necrotizing soft tissue infection, hospital gangrene, streptococcal gangrene, dermal gangrene, Meleney's ulcer, and Meleney's gangrene. When necrotizing fasciitis affects the genital area, it is often referred to as Fournier gangrene (also termed Fournier's gangrene).

    Necrotizing fasciitis is caused by bacteria in the vast majority of cases, though fungi can also rarely lead to this condition as well. Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes), though many different bacteria may be involved, either in isolation or along with other bacterial pathogens. Group A streptococcus is the same bacteria responsible for \\"strep throat,\\" impetigo (skin infection), and rheumatic fever. In recent years, there has been a surge in cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), often occurring in intravenous drug abusers. Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis are polymicrobial and involve both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Additional bacterial organisms that may be isolated in cases of necrotizing fasciitis include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Vibrio, Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, and Aeromonas hydrophila, among others. Individuals with underlying medical problems and a weakened immune system are also at increased risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis. Various medical conditions, including diabetes, renal failure, liver disease, cancer, peripheral vascular disease, and HIV infection, are often present in patients who develop necrotizing fasciitis, as are individuals undergoing chemotherapy, patients who have undergone organ transplant, and those taking corticosteroids for various reasons. Alcoholics and intravenous-drug abusers are also at increased risk. Many cases of necrotizing fasciitis, however, also occur in otherwise healthy individuals with no predisposing factors. In many cases of necrotizing fasciitis, there is a history of prior trauma, such as a cut, scrape, insect bite, burn, or needle puncture wound. These lesions may initially appear trivial or minor. Surgical incision sites and various surgical procedures may also serve as a source of infection. In many cases, however, there is no obvious source of infection or portal of entry to explain the cause (idiopathic).

    For classification purposes, necrotizing fasciitis has been subdivided into three distinct groupings, primarily based on the microbiology of the underlying infection; type 1 NF is caused by multiple bacterial species (polymicrobial), type 2 NF is caused by a single bacterial species (monomicrobial), which is typically Streptococcus pyogenes; type 3 NF (gas gangrene) is caused by Clostridium spp., and type 4 NF is caused by fungal infections, mainly Candida spp. and Zygomycetes. Infection caused by Vibrio spp. (frequently Vibrio vulnificus) is a variant form often occurring in individuals with liver disease, typically after ingesting seafood or exposing skin wounds to seawater contaminated by this organism.

    Early in the course of the disease, patients with necrotizing fasciitis may initially appear deceptively well, and they may not demonstrate any superficial visible signs of an underlying infection. Some individuals may initially complain of pain or soreness, similar to that of a \\"pulled muscle.\\" However as the infection rapidly spreads, the symptoms and signs of severe illness become apparent. Other associated symptoms seen with necrotizing fasciitis may include malaise, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and confusion.

    Necrotizing fasciitis generally appears as an area of localized redness, warmth, swelling, and pain, often resembling a superficial skin infection (cellulitis). Many times, the pain and tenderness experienced by patients is out of proportion to the visible findings on the skin. Fever and chills may be present. Over the course of hours to days, the redness of the skin rapidly spreads and the skin may become dusky, purplish, or dark in color. Overlying blisters, necrotic eschars (black scabs), hardening of the skin (induration), skin breakdown, and wound drainage may develop. Sometimes a fine crackling sensation may be felt under the skin (crepitus), signifying gas within the tissues. The severe pain and tenderness experienced may later diminish because of subsequent nerve damage, leading to localized anesthesia of the affected area. If left untreated, continued spread of the infection and widespread bodily involvement invariably occurs, frequently leading to sepsis (spread of the infection to the bloodstream) and often death.

    Because many cases of necrotizing fasciitis begin after some type of skin trauma, proper wound care and management are important. Keep all wounds clean and watch closely for any signs of infection. Early detection and treatment of infection may be the best measure to prevent the subsequent development of necrotizing fasciitis. Promptly seek medical care if any signs or symptoms of infection appear. Patients with underlying medical problems, such as diabetes, should watch closely for any signs of infection, and those individuals with a weakened immune system should take measures to avoid exposure to potential infections. Avoiding seafood and direct contact with warm seawater potentially contaminated with Vibrio species is recommended for those individuals with liver disease. Individuals with active skin infections or open wounds should consider avoiding whirlpools, swimming pools, and natural bodies of water.

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