en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Necrotizing_fasciitis#:~:text=From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Necrotizing fasciitis (NF),,the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting.
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), also known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of parts of the body's soft tissue. It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly. Symptoms usually include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting.
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Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), also known as flesh-eating disease, is an infection that results in the death of parts of the body's soft tissue. It is a severe disease of sudden onset that spreads rapidly. Symptoms usually include red or purple skin in the affected area, severe pain, fever, and vomiting.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Vibrio vulnificus is a species of Gram-negative, motile, curved rod-shaped (bacillus), pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Present in marine environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas, V. vulnificus is related to V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera.
Pathogenesis and classification. In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections).
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People usually complain of intense pain that may seem excessive given the external appearance of the skin. People initially have signs of inflammation, fever and a fast heart rate. With progression of the disease, often within hours, tissue becomes progressively swollen, the skin becomes discolored and develops blisters. Crepitusmay be present and there may be a discharge of fluid, said to resemble "dish-water". Diarrhea and vomiting are also common symptoms. In the early stages, signs of inflammation may not be apparent if the bacteria are deep within the tissue. If they are not deep, signs of inflammation, such as redness and swollen or hot skin, develop very quickly. Skin color may progress to violet, and blisters may form, with subsequent necrosis (death) of the subcutaneous tissues. Furthermore, people with necrotizing fasciitis typically have a fever and appear sick. Mortality rates are as high as 73% if...
More than 70% of cases are recorded in people with at least one of the following clinical situations: immunosuppression, diabetes, alcoholism/drug abuse/smoking, malignancies, and chronic systemic diseases. For reasons that are unclear, it occasionally occurs in people with an apparently normal general condition. The infection begins locally at a site of trauma, which may be severe (such as the result of surgery), minor, or even non-apparent.
Common organisms include Group A Streptococcus (group A strep), Klebsiella, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aeromonas hydrophila, and others. Group A strep is considered the most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis. The majority of infections are caused by organisms that normally reside on the individual's skin. These skin flora exist as commensals and infections reflect their anatomical distribution (e.g. perineal infec...
"Flesh-eating bacteria" is a misnomer, as in truth, the bacteria do not "eat" the tissue. They destroy the tissue that makes up the skin and muscle by releasing toxins (virulence factors).
Early diagnosis is difficult as the disease often looks early on like a simple superficial skin infection. While a number of laboratory and imaging modalities can raise the suspicion for necrotizing fasciitis, the gold standard for diagnosis is a surgical exploration in the setting of high suspicion. When in doubt, a small "keyhole" incision can be made into the affected tissue, and if a finger easily separates the tissue along the fascial plane, the diagnosis is confirmed and an extensive debridementshould be performed. Computed tomography(CT scan) is able to detect approximately 80% of cases while MRI may pick up slightly more.
Surgical debridement (cutting away affected tissue) is the mainstay of treatment for necrotizing fasciitis. Early medical treatment is often presumptive; thus, antibiotics should be started as soon as this condition is suspected. Given the dangerous nature of the disease, a high index of suspicion is needed. Initial treatment often includes a combination of intravenous antibiotics including piperacillin/tazobactam, vancomycin, and clindamycin. Cultures are taken to determine appropriate antibiotic coverage, and antibiotics may be changed when culture results are obtained. Treatment for necrotizing fasciitis may involve an interdisciplinary care team. For example, in the case of a necrotizing fasciitis involving the head and neck, the team could include otolaryngologists, speech pathologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and plastic surgeons or oral and maxillofacial surgeons...
Necrotizing fasciitis affects about 0.4 in every 100,000 people per year in the United States.In some areas of the world it is as common as 1 in every 100,000 people.
Other names have included phagedaenic ulcer, phagedena gangrenous, gangrenous ulcer, malignant ulcer, putrid ulcer, and hospital gangrene.
1. 1994 Lucien Bouchard, former premier of Québec, Canada, who became infected while leader of the federal official opposition Bloc Québécoisparty, lost a leg to the illness. 2. 1994 A cluster of cases occurred in Gloucestershire, in the west of England. Of five confirmed and one probable infection, two died. The cases were believed to be connected. The first two had acquired the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteria during surgery, the remaining four were community-acquired.The cases generated muc...
nercotizing fasciitis is a flesh eating bacteria that eats ur face off then kills you because it stabs you in the brain with its many innteanea!!!!
Flesh-eating bacteria (necrotizing fasciitis) is a rare infection of the skin and tissues below it. It can be deadly if not treated quickly. Necrotizing fasciitis spreads quickly and aggressively...
Dec 31, 2019 · There are many types of bacteria that can cause the “flesh-eating disease” called necrotizing fasciitis. Public health experts believe group A Streptococcus (group A strep) are the most common cause of necrotizing fasciitis. This web page only focuses on necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A strep bacteria.
- Signs and symptoms
One of the first descriptions of necrotizing fasciitis came from Hippocrates in the fifth century BC, when he described complications of erysipelas. Though necrotizing fasciitis has existed for many centuries, several more detailed descriptions of this condition were subsequently reported in the 19th and early 20th century. In 1952, Dr. B. Wilson first used the term necrotizing fasciitis to describe this condition, and this term has remained the most commonly used in modern medicine. Other terms that have been used to describe this same condition include flesh-eating bacteria syndrome, suppurative fasciitis, necrotizing cellulitis, necrotizing soft tissue infection, hospital gangrene, streptococcal gangrene, dermal gangrene, Meleney's ulcer, and Meleney's gangrene. When necrotizing fasciitis affects the genital area, it is often referred to as Fournier gangrene (also termed Fournier's gangrene).
Necrotizing fasciitis is caused by bacteria in the vast majority of cases, though fungi can also rarely lead to this condition as well. Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis are caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes), though many different bacteria may be involved, either in isolation or along with other bacterial pathogens. Group A streptococcus is the same bacteria responsible for \\"strep throat,\\" impetigo (skin infection), and rheumatic fever. In recent years, there has been a surge in cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), often occurring in intravenous drug abusers. Most cases of necrotizing fasciitis are polymicrobial and involve both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Additional bacterial organisms that may be isolated in cases of necrotizing fasciitis include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Vibrio, Bacteroides, Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, and Aeromonas hydrophila, among others. Individuals with underlying medical problems and a weakened immune system are also at increased risk of developing necrotizing fasciitis. Various medical conditions, including diabetes, renal failure, liver disease, cancer, peripheral vascular disease, and HIV infection, are often present in patients who develop necrotizing fasciitis, as are individuals undergoing chemotherapy, patients who have undergone organ transplant, and those taking corticosteroids for various reasons. Alcoholics and intravenous-drug abusers are also at increased risk. Many cases of necrotizing fasciitis, however, also occur in otherwise healthy individuals with no predisposing factors. In many cases of necrotizing fasciitis, there is a history of prior trauma, such as a cut, scrape, insect bite, burn, or needle puncture wound. These lesions may initially appear trivial or minor. Surgical incision sites and various surgical procedures may also serve as a source of infection. In many cases, however, there is no obvious source of infection or portal of entry to explain the cause (idiopathic).
For classification purposes, necrotizing fasciitis has been subdivided into three distinct groupings, primarily based on the microbiology of the underlying infection; type 1 NF is caused by multiple bacterial species (polymicrobial), type 2 NF is caused by a single bacterial species (monomicrobial), which is typically Streptococcus pyogenes; type 3 NF (gas gangrene) is caused by Clostridium spp., and type 4 NF is caused by fungal infections, mainly Candida spp. and Zygomycetes. Infection caused by Vibrio spp. (frequently Vibrio vulnificus) is a variant form often occurring in individuals with liver disease, typically after ingesting seafood or exposing skin wounds to seawater contaminated by this organism.
Early in the course of the disease, patients with necrotizing fasciitis may initially appear deceptively well, and they may not demonstrate any superficial visible signs of an underlying infection. Some individuals may initially complain of pain or soreness, similar to that of a \\"pulled muscle.\\" However as the infection rapidly spreads, the symptoms and signs of severe illness become apparent. Other associated symptoms seen with necrotizing fasciitis may include malaise, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and confusion.
Necrotizing fasciitis generally appears as an area of localized redness, warmth, swelling, and pain, often resembling a superficial skin infection (cellulitis). Many times, the pain and tenderness experienced by patients is out of proportion to the visible findings on the skin. Fever and chills may be present. Over the course of hours to days, the redness of the skin rapidly spreads and the skin may become dusky, purplish, or dark in color. Overlying blisters, necrotic eschars (black scabs), hardening of the skin (induration), skin breakdown, and wound drainage may develop. Sometimes a fine crackling sensation may be felt under the skin (crepitus), signifying gas within the tissues. The severe pain and tenderness experienced may later diminish because of subsequent nerve damage, leading to localized anesthesia of the affected area. If left untreated, continued spread of the infection and widespread bodily involvement invariably occurs, frequently leading to sepsis (spread of the infection to the bloodstream) and often death.
Because many cases of necrotizing fasciitis begin after some type of skin trauma, proper wound care and management are important. Keep all wounds clean and watch closely for any signs of infection. Early detection and treatment of infection may be the best measure to prevent the subsequent development of necrotizing fasciitis. Promptly seek medical care if any signs or symptoms of infection appear. Patients with underlying medical problems, such as diabetes, should watch closely for any signs of infection, and those individuals with a weakened immune system should take measures to avoid exposure to potential infections. Avoiding seafood and direct contact with warm seawater potentially contaminated with Vibrio species is recommended for those individuals with liver disease. Individuals with active skin infections or open wounds should consider avoiding whirlpools, swimming pools, and natural bodies of water.