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  1. Notre-Dame de Paris ( French: [nɔtʁə dam də paʁi] ( listen); meaning " Our Lady of Paris "), referred to simply as Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité (an island in the Seine River), in the 4th arrondissement of Paris. The cathedral, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is considered one of the finest examples of ...

    • 1991
    • Paris, Banks of the Seine
    • History
    • Timeline
    • Exterior
    • The Treasury
    • Stained Glass Windows
    • The Organ
    • Light Show - The Façade in Colour
    • Notable Burials and Memorials
    • Bibliography and Sources
    • See Also

    Earlier cathedrals

    According to local tradition, Christianity was brought to Amiens in the third century A.D. by two Christian martyrs, known as Firmin the Martyr and Firmin the Confessor. Saint Martin was baptised in Amiens in 334. The church was suppressed by the invasions of the Vandals, and did not recommence until the end of the fifth century, with the baptism of Clovis I in 498 or 499. The first Bishop of Amiens was Edibus, who participated in a Council in 511. An early cathedral with two churches dedicat...


    1. Exterior of Amiens Cathedral 2. Cutaway plan of the Cathedral A fire destroyed the Romanesque cathedral in 1218. A plan for a new cathedral was made by master-builder Robert de Luzarches, and in 1220 Bishop Evrard de Fouilloy laid the first stone. Luzarches revolutionised the system of Gothic construction by using pieces of stone of standardised sizes and forms, rather than making unique pieces for each function. He was the architect until 1228, and was followed by Thomas de Cormontuntil 1...


    The original design of the flying buttressesaround the choir had them placed too high to counteract the force of the ceiling arch pushing outwards resulting in excessive lateral forces being placed on the vertical columns. The structure was only saved when masons placed a second row of more robust flying buttresses that connected lower down on the outer wall. In 1497 the four pillars of the transept crossing, as well as the two left columns of the chevet began to show cracks and other signs o...

    346 - First mention of a bishop, Eulogius, in Amiens
    1137-52- Construction of the Romanesque cathedral
    1206- Reputed Skull of Saint John the Baptist is brought to the cathedral from Constantinople
    1218- Romanesque cathedral destroyed by fire

    The west facade and the portals

    1. The rose window and gallery of Kings on the west facade 2. West portals of Amiens Cathedral 3. Christ rendering judgement in the central portal 4. Local saints including the decapitated martyrs, Victoricus and Gentian, in the west portals 5. Smiling Virgin statue on west portal The west facade of the cathedral was built in a single campaign from 1220 to 1236, and shows an unusual degree of artistic unity. The level of the rose window was finished in about 1240. Afterward, construction move...

    Bell towers

    The upper portions of the towers of the west facade, above the rose window, were later constructions, and are of different heights. The south bell tower on the right facing the facade, is shorter and was completed first in about 1366, The north tower was completed in 1406, and is decorated in the late Gothic Flamboyant style.The elaborate Bell-Ringers or Musicians Gallery, which joins the two towers at the roof level, was added at this time, and was substantially restored or recreated in the...

    Beau Pilier

    One unusual feature of the towers is the Beau Pilier (Beautiful pillar), a supporting buttress that was added in the 14th century at the junction between the north tower the first of two new chapels built on the north side. The pillar and chapels were commissioned by Jean de la Grange, Bishop of Amiens (1373–1375) who was a principal advisor to King Charles VI of France. The pillar holds nine statues representing the major political, religious and military figures of France at the time; at th...

    The Treasury is located in the apse at the east end of the Cathedral, on the southern side near the sacristy. The collection of reliquaries and other precious objects was dispersed in 1793 during the Revolution, but gradually some of the treasures were returned, some were recreated, while others were added by other donors. Objects of particular interest include the Crown of Paraclet,made in about 1230–1240, which was saved from destruction at the Cistercian monastery of Paraclet, not from Amiens. It contains what are said to be relics of the Passion of Christ, set into a gilded and enamelled crown decorated with jewels, pearls and precious stones. A fine statue of the Virgin Mary and Child, made of polychrome wood in the 15th century is also found in the Treasury. Other objects of interest are found in the chapels along the nave and transept. The initial impetus for the building of the cathedral came from the installation of the reputed head of John the Baptist on 17 December 1206....

    Only a few of the original stained glass windows still remain; many were removed during the remodeling of the Cathedral in the 18th century. Others were destroyed when the church was sacked by the Protestant Huguenotsin 1561, by hurricanes in 1627 and 1705; by the exposition of a powder mill in 1675. A large group of early windows, which had been removed in 1914 to protect them from damage during the First World War, were destroyed in 1920 when the studio where they were stored was destroyed by fire. Some of the early glass dates from same period as those of Chartres Cathedral, though most of the earliest windows have disappeared. Some of the earliest glass, from about 1269, is found in two of the lancets in the high windows of the chapel at the end of the apse, at the east end of the Cathedral. These two windows depict the same scene, one the inverse of the other. They show a clergyman presenting the stained glass to the Virgin Mary, to whom the chapel is dedicated. Angels carry cr...

    The first organ in the cathedral was a gift from Alphonse Lemire, an official of the court of King Charles VI of France. It was installed on the interior of the west wall of the Cathedral, below the rose window, between 1442 and 1449. All that remains of this organ is wooden tribune, lavishly decorated with Flamboyant Gothic carvings. The current pipes and buffet were installed in 1549, with additions in 1620. It was restored in the 19th century and again shortly before World War II. 1. The Cathedral organ 2. The Flamboyant decoration of the organ (15th century)

    During the process of laser cleaning in the 1990s, it was discovered that the western façade of the cathedral was originally painted in multiple colours. A technique was perfected to determine the exact make-up of the colours as they were applied in the 13th century. Then, in conjunction with the laboratories of EDF and the expertise of the Society Skertzo, elaborate lighting techniques were developed to project these colours directly on the façade with precision, recreating the polychromatic appearance of the 13th century. When projected on the statues around the portals, the result is a stunning display that brings the figures to life. The projected colors are faint to photograph, but a good quality DSLRcamera provides excellent results, as shown below. The full effect of the colour may be best appreciated by direct viewing, with musical accompaniment, which can be done at the Son et lumièreshows which are held on Summer evenings, during the Christmas Fair, and over the New Year....

    Brisac, Catherine (1994). Le Vitrail (in French). Paris: La Martinière. ISBN 2-73-242117-0.
    Duvanel, Maurice (1998). La Cathédrale Notre-Dame d'Amiens (in French). Éditions Poire-Choquet. ISBN 2-9502147-5-4.
    Lours, Mathieu (2018). Dictionnaire des Cathédrales (in French). Editions Jean-Paul Gisserot. ISBN 978-27558-0765-3.}}
    Plagnieux, Philippe (2003). Cathérale Notre Dame d'Amiens (in French). Éditions du Patrimoine, Centre des Monuments Nationaux. ISBN 978-27577-0404-2.
    • 1981
    • France
    • ca. 1220 - 1270
    • Amiens
  2. Notre Dame de Paris: Flying Buttress Notre Dame de Paris ('Our Lady of Paris' in French) is a Gothic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris , France , with its main entrance to the west.

  3. Apr 15, 2019 · Without consulting wikipedia, I know that Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.[4] The cathedral is considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture.

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    • History
    • Timeline
    • Description
    • The Towers and Clock
    • The Portals and Their Sculpture
    • Angels and Monsters
    • Nave and Ambulatory
    • Stained Glass Windows
    • The Crypt
    • Labyrinth

    Earlier Cathedrals

    At least five cathedrals have stood on this site, each replacing an earlier building damaged by war or fire. The first church dated from no later than the 4th century and was located at the base of a Gallo-Roman wall; this was put to the torch in 743 on the orders of the Duke of Aquitaine. The second church on the site was set on fire by Danish pirates in 858. This was then reconstructed and enlarged by Bishop Gislebert, but was itself destroyed by fire in 1020. A vestige of this church, now...

    Fire and reconstruction

    On the night of 10 July 1194, another major fire devastated the cathedral. Only the crypt, the towers, and the new facade survived. The cathedral was already known throughout Europe as a pilgrimage destination, due to the reputed relics of the Virgin Marythat it contained. A legate of the Pope happened to be in Chartres at the time of the fire, and spread the word. Funds were collected from royal and noble patrons across Europe, as well as small donations from ordinary people. Reconstruction...

    Later modifications (13th–18th centuries) and the Coronation of Henry IV of France

    Relatively few changes were made after this time. An additional seven spires were proposed in the original plans, but these were never built. In 1326, a new two-story chapel, dedicated to Saint Piatus of Tournai, displaying his relics, was added to the apse. The upper floor of this chapel was accessed by a staircase opening onto the ambulatory. (The chapel is normally closed to visitors, although it occasionally houses temporary exhibitions.) Another chapel was opened in 1417 by Louis, Count...

    743- First mention cathedral in Chartres in a text
    c. 876 - Charles the Baldgives the cathedral an important sacred relic, the veil of the Virgin, making it an important pilgrimage destination.
    1020- Fire damages cathedral. Bishop Fulbert begins reconstruction.
    1030- New cathedral dedicated by Bishop Thierry, successor to Fulbert


    1. Length: 130 metres (430 ft) 2. Width: 32 metres (105 ft) / 46 metres (151 ft) 3. Nave: height 37 metres (121 ft); width 16.4 metres (54 ft) 4. Ground area: 10,875 square metres (117,060 sq ft) 5. Height of south-west tower: 105 metres (344 ft) 6. Height of north-west tower: 113 metres (371 ft) 7. 176 stained-glass windows 8. Choir enclosure: 200 statues in 41 scenes

    Plan and elevation – flying buttresses

    1. Chartres floorplan (1856) by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc(1814–1879) 2. The elevation of the nave, showing the gallery on the ground level; the narrow triforium; and, on top, the windows of the clerestory 3. Flying buttressessupporting the upper walls and counterbalancing the outward thrust of the vaulted ceiling, allowing thin walls and greater space for windows 4. Flying buttresses seen from above 5. The vaultsof the roof, connected by stone ribs to the pillars below, combined with the flying b...

    The Flamboyant GothicNorth Tower (finished 1513) (left) and older South Tower (1144–1150) (right)
    Detail of the South Tower
    Detail of the Flamboyant Gothic North Tower
    The clock pavilion, with a 24-hour astronomical clock

    The cathedral has three great portals or entrances, opening into the nave from the west and into the transepts from north and south. The portals are richly decorated with sculptures, which rendered biblical stories and theological ideas visible for both the educated clergy and layfolk who may not have had access to textual learning. Each of the three portals on the west facade (made 1145-55) focuses on a different aspect of Christ's role in the world; on the right, his earthly Incarnation, on the left, his Ascension or his existence before his Incarnation (the era "ante legem"), and, in the center, his Second Coming, initiating the End of Time.The statuary of the Chartres portals is considered among the finest existing Gothic sculpture.

    Angel with a sundial on south facade
    Detail of the South Tower, with statuary of Chimeras
    Detail on the South Portal depicting angels looking down upon hell
    Notre Dame de Piliers statue and chapel off the nave
    Fragment of a reputed veil of Virgin Mary, displayed in the Chapel of the Martyrs

    One of the most distinctive features of Chartres Cathedral is the stained glass, both for its quantity and quality. There are 167 windows, including rose windows, round oculi, and tall, pointed lancet windows. The architecture of the cathedral, with its innovative combination of rib vaults and flying buttresses, permitted the construction of much higher and thinner walls, particularly at the top clerestory level, allowing more and larger windows. Also, Chartres contains fewer plain or grisaillewindows than later cathedrals, and more windows with densely stained glass panels, making the interior of Chartres darker but the colour of the light deeper and richer.

    The Well of the Saints Forts, in the Saint Fulbert Crypt
    12th century fresco in the Saint Lubin Crypt, showing the Virgin Mary on her throne of wisdom, with the Three Kings to her right and Savinien and Potenien to her left
    Plan of the labyrinth of Chartres Cathedral
    Walking the labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral
    • 1862
    • 1979 (3rd Session)
  5. Architecture of Notre-Dame Cathedral. The cathedral is roughly 128 metres (420 ft) in length, and 12 metres (39 ft) wide in the nave. Its cruciform plan, elevated nave, transept and tower were borrowed from 11th-century Romanesque architecture , but its pointed arches and rib vaulting

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