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      • Frederick III, byname Frederick the Pious, German Friedrich der Fromme, (born Feb. 14, 1515, Simmern, Ger.—died Oct. 26, 1576, Heidelberg, Rhenish Palatinate), elector Palatine of the Rhine (1559–76) and a leader of the German Protestant princes who worked for a Protestant victory in Germany, France, and the Netherlands.
      www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-III-elector-Palatine-of-the-Rhine#:~:text=Frederick%20III%2C%20byname%20Frederick%20the%20Pious%2C%20German%20Friedrich,Protestant%20victory%20in%20Germany%2C%20France%2C%20and%20the%20Netherlands.
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  2. Frederick V of the Palatinate - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_V,_Elector_Palatine

    Frederick V (German: Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and reigned as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620.

  3. Frederick I, Elector Palatine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Elector_Palatine

    Frederick I, the Victorious (der Siegreiche) (1 August 1425, Heidelberg – 12 December 1476, Heidelberg) was a Count Palatine of the Rhine and Elector Palatine from the House of Wittelsbach in 1451–76. Biography. He was a son of Louis III, Elector Palatine and his second wife Matilda of Savoy.

  4. Frederick IV, Elector Palatine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_IV,_Elector_Palatine
    • Overview
    • Life
    • Family and children

    Frederick IV, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, only surviving son of Louis VI, Elector Palatine and Elisabeth of Hesse, called "Frederick the Righteous".

    Born in Amberg, his father died in October 1583 and Frederick came under the guardianship of his uncle, John Casimir, an ardent Calvinist. The Calvinist mathematician and astronomer Bartholemaeus Pitiscus served as Frederick's tutor and later became court preacher. In January 1592, Frederick assumed control of the government of the Electorate of the Palatinate upon the death of John Casimir. Frederick continued John Casimir's anti-Catholic measures and in 1608 became the head of the Protestant m

    In 1593 he married Louise Juliana of Nassau, the daughter of William I of Orange and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier. They had eight children: 1. Luise Juliane of the Palatinate; married in 1612 to Pfalzgraf John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken. 2. Katharina Sofie of the Palatinate. 3. Frederick V, Elector Palatine. 4. Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate; married in 1616 to Elector George William of Brandenburg. 5. Anna Eleonore of the Palatinate. 6. Louis William of the Palatinate. 7 ...

  5. Frederick III, Elector Palatine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/.../Frederick_III,_Elector_Palatine
    • Overview
    • Life
    • Family and children

    Frederick III of Simmern, the Pious, Elector Palatine of the Rhine was a ruler from the house of Wittelsbach, branch Palatinate-Simmern-Sponheim. He was a son of John II of Simmern and inherited the Palatinate from the childless Elector Otto-Henry, Elector Palatine in 1559. He was a devout convert to Calvinism, and made the Reformed confession the official religion of his domain by overseeing the composition and promulgation of the Heidelberg Catechism. His support of Calvinism gave the German R

    Frederick was strictly educated in the Roman faith at his father's court and at Cologne, but, influenced by his wife, the pious princess Maria of Brandenburg, whom he married in 1537, he followed the Reformation, and in 1546 made a public profession of his faith. He succeeded his father John II as duke of Simmern on 18 May 1557, and became elector on 12 February 1559, on the death of Otto Henry. Under his predecessor strict Lutherans like Tilemann Heshusius, Melanchthonians, and Calvinists had f

    Frederick III was married twice. Firstly, he married in 1537 Marie of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, daughter of Casimir, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Susanna of Bavaria. Their children were: Alberta Louis VI, Elector Palatine Elisabeth, married in 1558 to Duke Johann Frederick II of Saxony Hermann Ludwig Johann Casimir; married: 1570 Elisabeth of Saxony Dorothea Susanne, married in 1560 to John William, Duke of Saxe-Weimar Albert Anna Elisabeth, married: in 1569 to Landgrave Philipp II of Hesse-

  6. Frederick II, Elector Palatine - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_II,_Elector_Palatine

    Life. Frederick was born at Winzingen Castle near Neustadt an der Weinstraße as the fourth son of Philip, Elector Palatine and Margarete of Bavaria-Landshut.He was the Duke Count Palatine and served as counselor and general for Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, commanding expeditions against the Turks in 1529 and 1532, and assisting the Emperor at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530.

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  7. Frederick V | elector Palatine of the Rhine | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-V-elector...

    Aug 22, 2020 · Frederick V, elector Palatine of the Rhine, king of Bohemia (as Frederick I, 1619–20), and director of the Protestant Union. Brought up a Calvinist, partly in France, Frederick succeeded his father, Frederick IV, both as elector and as director of the Protestant Union in 1610, with Christian of

  8. Frederick III | elector Palatine of the Rhine | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-III...

    Frederick III, byname Frederick the Pious, German Friedrich der Fromme, (born Feb. 14, 1515, Simmern, Ger.—died Oct. 26, 1576, Heidelberg, Rhenish Palatinate), elector Palatine of the Rhine (1559–76) and a leader of the German Protestant princes who worked for a Protestant victory in Germany, France, and the Netherlands.

  9. Frederick III, Elector Palatine | History Wiki | Fandom

    history.wikia.org/wiki/Frederick_III,_Elector...

    Frederick III the Pious (German: Friedrich III. der Fromme) (14 February 1515 - 26 October 1576) was the Elector Palatine from 1559 until 1576, and the Count Palatine of Simmern from 1557 until 1559. Life Frederick was born in 1515 to Count Palatine John II of Simmern. He was educated strictly in the Roman Catholic rites at his father's court and Cologne, and became greatly skilled in the ...

  10. Frederick V, Elector Palatine | Article about Frederick V ...

    encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Frederick+V...

    Frederick the Winter King, 1596–1632, king of Bohemia (1619–20), elector palatine (1610–20) as Frederick V. The Protestant diet of Bohemia deposed the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II,

  11. Palatinate | historical region, Germany | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/place/Palatinate

    The Palatinate remained Roman Catholic during the early Reformation but adopted Calvinism in the 1560s under Elector Frederick III. The Palatinate became the bulwark of the Protestant cause in Germany. Elector Frederick IV became the head of the Protestant military alliance known as the Protestant Union in 1608.