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  1. Frederick Barbarossa (German: Friedrich I., Italian: Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152.

    Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
  2. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/.../Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

    Frederick Barbarossa (German: Friedrich I., Italian: Federico I; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death 35 years later. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152.

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  3. Frederick I | Holy Roman emperor | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/biography/Frederick-I-Holy...

    Frederick I, byname Frederick Barbarossa (Italian: Redbeard), (born c. 1123—died June 10, 1190), duke of Swabia (as Frederick III, 1147–90) and German king and Holy Roman emperor (1152–90), who challenged papal authority and sought to establish German predominance in western Europe. He engaged in a long struggle with the cities of ...

  4. Biography of Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor

    www.thoughtco.com/crusades-frederick-i...

    Jun 13, 2019 · Frederick I Barbarossa reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 to 1190. Learn about his military exploits and his impact on medieval Europe.

  5. Frederick I Barbarossa: A Megalomaniac Roman Emperor On a ...

    www.ancient-origins.net/history/frederick-i...

    Jun 22, 2017 · Frederick I, known also by his nickname, Barbarossa (which, in Italian, means ‘Red Beard’), was a Holy Roman emperor who lived during the 12th century. During his lifetime, Barbarossa was a popular ruler, and was well-loved by his subjects.

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  6. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor | Historipedia Official Wiki ...

    historipediaofficial.wikia.org/wiki/Frederick_I...
    • Life and Reign
    • Frederick and The Justinian Code
    • Charismatic Leader
    • Legend
    • Issue
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Early years

    Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of the southern German region of Swabia (Herzog von Schwaben), and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards...

    Rise to power

    Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark and began negotiations with the Eastern Roman Emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It...

    First Italian Campaign: 1154–55

    Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first, beginning in October 1154, his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and almost immediately encountered resistance to his authority. Obtaining the submission of Milan, he successfully besieged Tortona in early 1155, razing it to the ground. He moved on to Pavia, where he received the Iron Crown and the title of King of Italy. Moving through Bologna and Tuscany, he was soon...

    The increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy led to a revival in the study of the Justinian Code, a Latin legal system that had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law and had a copy of it. The historian Norman Cantor described Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) as "the greatest legal code ever devised". It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law (as seen by the men of the Justinian system), the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the rig...

    Historians have compared Frederick to Henry II of England. Both were considered the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age. Each possessed a rare combination of qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries: longevity, boundless ambition, extraordinary organizing skill, and greatness on the battlefield. Both were handsome and proficient in courtly skills, without appearing effeminate or affected. Both came to the throne in the prime of manhood. Each had an element of learning, without being considered impractical intellectuals but rather more inclined to practicality. Each found himself in the possession of new legal institutions that were put to creative use in governing. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, without being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the 12th century. In making final decisions, each relied solely upon his own judgment,and both we...

    Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia or Mount Untersberg in Bavaria, Germany, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A similar story, set in Sicily, was earlier attested about his grandson, Frederick II. To garner political support the German Empire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Monument, which declared Kaiser Wilhelm Ithe reincarnation of Frederick; the 1896 dedication occurred on 18 June, the day of Frederick's coronation. In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend bec...

    Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg, did not produce any issue and was annulled. From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy,he had the following children: 1. Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicilybut died before they could be married. 2. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). 3. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). 4. Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabiaafter the death of his older brother. 5. Gisela (October/November 1168 – 1184). 6. Otto I, Count of Burgundy(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). 7. Conrad II, Duke of Swabiaand Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). 8. Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy). 9. William (June/July 1176 – in infancy). 10. Philip of Swabia (August 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) King of Germany in 1198. 11...

    In Victor Hugo's romantic play Les Burgraves(1843), Frederick (as character Frédéric de Hohenstaufen) returns many years after he was presumed dead, as expected by some medieval legends.
    Cyrus Townsend Brady's Hohenzollern; a Story of the Time of Frederick Barbarossa(1901) begins with a dedication to "the descendants of the great Germanic race who in Europe, in America, and in the...
    Land of Unreason (1941), by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt, mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
    John Crowley's novel Little, Big(1981) features Frederick Barbarossa as a character in modern times, awoken from his centuries of sleep. In the book, he becomes the President of the United States a...
    German monarchs family tree
    Dukes of Swabia family tree
    Operation Barbarossa, the codename of the German invasion of the Soviet Unionin 1941.

    Template:Wikisource author 1. MSN Encarta – Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire) (Archived2009-10-31) 2. Famous Men of the Middle Ages – Frederick Barbarossa 3. Charter given by Emperor Frederick for the bishopric of Bamberg showing the Emperor's seal, 6.4.1157 . Taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University

    • 1122
    • Conrad III
    • 30 June 1178, Arles
    • 1152–1190
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  8. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2

    wiki2.org/en/Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
    • Biography
    • Frederick and The Justinian Code
    • Charismatic Leader
    • Legend
    • Issue
    • in Popular Culture
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    Early years

    Fred­er­ick was born in 1122. In 1147 he be­came Duke of the south­ern Ger­man re­gion of Swabia (Her­zog von Schwaben), and shortly af­ter­wards made his first trip to the East, ac­com­pa­nied by his uncle, the Ger­man king Con­rad III, on the Sec­ond Cru­sade. The ex­pe­di­tion proved to be a disaster, but Fred­er­ick dis­tin­guished him­self and won the com­plete con­fi­dence of the king. When Con­rad died in Feb­ru­ary 1152, only Fred­er­ick and the prince-bishop of Bam­berg were at his d...

    Rise to power

    Eager to re­store the Em­pire to the po­si­tion it had oc­cu­pied under Charle­magne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw clearly that the restora­tion of order in Ger­many was a nec­es­sary pre­lim­i­nary to the en­force­ment of the im­pe­r­ial rights in Italy. Is­su­ing a gen­eral order for peace, he made lav­ish con­ces­sions to the nobles. Abroad, Fred­er­ick in­ter­vened in the Dan­ish civil war be­tween Svend III and Valde­mar I of Den­mark and began ne­go­ti­a­tions with the East­ern...

    First Italian Campaign: 1154–55

    Fred­er­ick un­der­took six ex­pe­di­tions into Italy. In the first, be­gin­ning in Oc­to­ber 1154, his plan was to launch a cam­paign against the Nor­mans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and al­most im­me­di­ately en­coun­tered re­sis­tance to his au­thor­ity. Ob­tain­ing the sub­mis­sion of Milan, he suc­cess­fully be­sieged Tor­tona in early 1155, raz­ing it to the ground. He moved on to Pavia, where he re­ceived the Iron Crown and the title of King of Italy. Mov­ing throug...

    The in­crease in wealth of the trad­ing cities of north­ern Italy led to a re­vival in the study of the Jus­tin­ian Code, a Latin legal sys­tem that had be­come ex­tinct cen­turies ear­lier. Legal schol­ars re­newed its ap­pli­ca­tion. It is spec­u­lated that Pope Gre­gory VII per­son­ally en­cour­aged the Jus­tin­ian rule of law and had a copy of it. The his­to­rian Nor­man Can­tor de­scribed Cor­pus Iuris Civilis (Jus­tin­ian Body of Civil Law) as "the great­est legal code ever devised". It en­vis­aged the law of the state as a re­flec­tion of nat­ural moral law (as seen by the men of the Jus­tin­ian sys­tem), the prin­ci­ple of ra­tio­nal­ity in the uni­verse. By the time Fred­er­ick as­sumed the throne, this legal sys­tem was well es­tab­lished on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to uti­lize the avail­abil­ity of the new pro­fes­sional class of lawyers. The Civil Law al­lowed Fred­er­ick to use these lawyers to ad­min­is­ter his king­dom in a log­i­cal and con­sis­tent m...

    His­to­ri­ans have com­pared Fred­er­ick to Henry II of Eng­land. Both were con­sid­ered the great­est and most charis­matic lead­ers of their age. Each pos­sessed a rare com­bi­na­tion of qual­i­ties that made him ap­pear su­per­hu­man to his con­tem­po­raries: longevity, bound­less am­bi­tion, ex­tra­or­di­nary or­ga­niz­ing skill, and great­ness on the bat­tle­field. Both were hand­some and pro­fi­cient in courtly skills, with­out ap­pear­ing ef­fem­i­nate or af­fected. Both came to the throne in the prime of man­hood. Each had an el­e­ment of learn­ing, with­out being con­sid­ered im­prac­ti­cal in­tel­lec­tu­als but rather more in­clined to prac­ti­cal­ity. Each found him­self in the pos­ses­sion of new legal in­sti­tu­tions that were put to cre­ative use in gov­ern­ing. Both Henry and Fred­er­ick were viewed to be suf­fi­ciently and for­mally de­vout to the teach­ings of the Church, with­out being moved to the ex­tremes of spir­i­tu­al­ity seen in the great saints of the 12th...

    Fred­er­ick is the sub­ject of many leg­ends, in­clud­ing that of a sleep­ing hero, like the much older British Celtic leg­ends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Leg­end says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser moun­tains in Thuringia or Mount Un­ters­berg in Bavaria, Ger­many, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the moun­tain he will awake and re­store Ger­many to its an­cient great­ness. Ac­cord­ing to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A sim­i­lar story, set in Sicily, was ear­lier at­tested about his grand­son, Fred­er­ick II. To gar­ner po­lit­i­cal sup­port the Ger­man Em­pire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Mon­u­ment, which de­clared Kaiser Wil­helm Ithe rein­car­na­tion of Fred­er­ick; the 1896 ded­i­ca­tion oc­curred on 18 June, the day of Fred­er­ick's cor...

    Fred­er­ick's first mar­riage, to Adel­heid of Vo­hburg, did not pro­duce any issue and was annulled. From his sec­ond mar­riage, to Beat­rice of Bur­gundy,he had the fol­low­ing chil­dren: 1. Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicilybut died before they could be married. 2. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). 3. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). 4. Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabiaafter the death of his older brother. 5. Gisela (October/November 1168 – 1184). 6. Otto I, Count of Burgundy(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). 7. Conrad II, Duke of Swabiaand Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). 8. Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy). 9. William (June/July 1176 – in infancy). 10. Philip of Swabia (August 1177 – killed, Bamberg, 21 June 1208) King of German...

    In Victor Hugo's romantic play Les Burgraves(1843), Frederick (as character Frédéric de Hohenstaufen) returns many years after he was presumed dead, as expected by some medieval legends.
    Land of Unreason (1941), by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt, mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
    John Crowley's novel Little, Big(1981) features Frederick Barbarossa as a character in modern times, awoken from his centuries of sleep. In the book, he becomes the President of the United States a...
    Operation Barbarossa, the codename of the German invasion of the Soviet Unionin 1941.

    This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Frederick I., Roman Emperor". Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

    MSN Encarta – Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire) (Archived2009-10-31)
    Charter given by Emperor Frederick for the bishopric of Bamberg showing the Emperor's seal, 6.4.1157 . Taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University
  9. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I - 1155-1190

    holyromanempireassociation.com/holy-roman-emperor...

    Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I - 1155-1190. Frederick I (German: Friedrich; 1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152.

  10. Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org/wiki/Frederick_I,_Holy_Roman...
    • Life and Reign
    • Frederick and The Justinian Code
    • Charismatic Leader
    • Legend
    • Issue
    • Frederick Barbarossa in Fiction
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Early years

    Frederick was born in 1122. In 1147 he became Duke of Swabia, and shortly afterwards made his first trip to the East, accompanied by his uncle, the German king Conrad III, on the Second Crusade. The expedition proved to be a disaster, but Frederick distinguished himself and won the complete confidence of the king. When Conrad died in February 1152, only Frederick and the prince-bishop of Bamberg were at his deathbed. Both asserted afterwards that Conrad had, in full possession of his mental p...

    Rise to power

    Eager to restore the Empire to the position it had occupied under Charlemagne and Otto I the Great, the new king saw clearly that the restoration of order in Germany was a necessary preliminary to the enforcement of the imperial rights in Italy. Issuing a general order for peace, he made lavish concessions to the nobles. Abroad, Frederick intervened in the Danish civil war between Svend III and Valdemar I of Denmark and began negotiations with the Eastern Roman Emperor, Manuel I Comnenus. It...

    First Italian Campaign: 1154–55

    Frederick undertook six expeditions into Italy. In the first, beginning in October 1154 his plan was to launch a campaign against the Normans under King William I of Sicily. He marched down and almost immediately began encountering resistance to his authority. Obtaining the submission of Milan, he successfully besieged Tortona in early 1155, razing it to the ground before moving to Pavia where he received the Iron Crown, and with it, the title of King of Italy. Moving through Bologna and Tusc...

    With the increase in wealth of the trading cities of northern Italy, a revival in the study of the Justinian Code occurred. This was a Latin legal system which had become extinct centuries earlier. Legal scholars renewed its application. It is speculated that Pope Gregory VII personally encouraged the Justinian rule of law, and had a copy of it. Corpus Iuris Civilis (Justinian Body of Civil Law) has been described as the greatest code of law ever devised. It envisaged the law of the state as a reflection of natural moral law, the principle of rationality in the universe. By the time Frederick assumed the throne, this legal system was well established on both sides of the Alps. He was the first to utilize the availability of the new professional class of lawyers. The Civil Law allowed Frederick to use these lawyers to administer his kingdom in a logical and consistent manner. It also provided a framework to legitimize his claim to the right to rule both Germany and northern Italy. In...

    Historians have compared Henry II of England to Frederick Barbarossa. Both were considered the greatest and most charismatic leaders of their age. Each had a rare combination of qualities that made him appear superhuman to his contemporaries. Each possessed longevity, boundless ambition, extraordinary organizing skill, and greatness on the battlefield. Both men were handsome and proficient in courtly skills, without appearing effeminate or affected. Both came to the throne in the prime of manhood. Each had an element of learning, without being considered impractical intellectuals, but rather more inclined to practicality. Each found himself in the possession of new legal institutions which were put to creative use in governing. Both Henry and Frederick were viewed to be sufficiently and formally devout to the teachings of the Church, without being moved to the extremes of spirituality seen in the great saints of the twelfth century. In making final decisions, each relied solely upon...

    Frederick is the subject of many legends, including that of a sleeping hero, like the much older British Celtic legends of Arthur or Bran the Blessed. Legend says he is not dead, but asleep with his knights in a cave in the Kyffhäuser mountain in Thuringia or Mount Untersberg in Bavaria, Germany, and that when the ravens cease to fly around the mountain he will awake and restore Germany to its ancient greatness. According to the story, his red beard has grown through the table at which he sits. His eyes are half closed in sleep, but now and then he raises his hand and sends a boy out to see if the ravens have stopped flying. A similar story, set in Sicily, was earlier attested about his grandson, Frederick II. To garner political support the German Empire built atop the Kyffhäuser the Kyffhäuser Monument, which declared Kaiser Wilhelm Ithe reincarnation of Frederick; the 1896 dedication occurred on 18 June, the day of Frederick’s coronation. In medieval Europe, the Golden Legend bec...

    Frederick's first marriage, to Adelheid of Vohburg, did not produce any issue. From his second marriage, to Beatrice of Burgundy, he had the following children: 1. Sophie (1161–1187), married to Margrave William VI of Montferrat. 2. Beatrice (1162–1174). She was betrothed to King William II of Sicilybut died before they could be married. 3. Frederick V, Duke of Swabia(Pavia, 16 July 1164 – 28 November 1170). 4. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor(Nijmegen, November 1165 – Messina, 28 September 1197). 5. Conrad (Modigliana, February 1167 – Acre, 20 January 1191), later renamed Frederick VI, Duke of Swabiaafter the death of his older brother. 6. Gisela(October/November 1168 – 1184). 7. Otto I, Count of Burgundy(June/July 1170 – killed, Besançon, 13 January 1200). 8. Conrad II, Duke of Swabiaand Rothenburg (February/March 1172 – killed, Durlach, 15 August 1196). 9. Renaud (October/November 1173 – in infancy). 10. William (June/July 1176 – in infancy). 11. Philip of Swabia (August 1177 – kille...

    Cyrus Townsend Brady's Hohenzollern; a Story of the Time of Frederick Barbarossa(1901) begins with a dedication to "the descendants of the great Germanic race who in Europe, in America, and in the...
    Umberto Eco's novel Baudolino(2000) is set partly at Frederick's court, and also deals with the mystery of Frederick's death. The imaginary hero, Baudolino, is the Emperor's adopted son and confidant.
    John Crowley's novel Little, Big(1981) features Frederick Barbarossa as a character in modern times, awoken from his centuries of sleep. In the book, he becomes the President of the United States a...
    The Land of Unreason, by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt, mentions the castle of the Kyffhäuser.
    German monarchs family tree
    Dukes of Swabia family tree
    MSN Encarta – Frederick I (Holy Roman Empire) (Archived2009-10-31)
    Charter given by Emperor Frederick for the bishopric of Bamberg showing the Emperor's seal, 6.4.1157 . Taken from the collections of the Lichtbildarchiv älterer Originalurkunden at Marburg University
    Texts on Wikisource:
  11. Friedrich I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor - geni family tree

    www.geni.com/people/Friedrich-I-Barbarossa-Holy...

    Genealogy profile for Friedrich I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich I "Barbarossa" von Hohenstaufen, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (c.1122 - 1190) - Genealogy Genealogy for Friedrich I "Barbarossa" von Hohenstaufen, Kaiser des Heiligen Römischen Reiches (c.1122 - 1190) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ...

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