- Frederick III (17 January 1463 – 5 May 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise (German Friedrich der Weise) was Elector of Saxony from 1486 to 1525, who is mostly remembered for the worldly protection of his subject Martin Luther.
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Frederick III (17 January 1463 – 5 May 1525), also known as Frederick the Wise (German Friedrich der Weise), was Elector of Saxony from 1486 to 1525, who is mostly remembered for the worldly protection of his subject Martin Luther.
Frederick I, the Belligerent or the Warlike (German: Friedrich der Streitbare; 11 April 1370 – 4 January 1428), a member of the House of Wettin, ruled as Margrave of Meissen from 1407 and Elector of Saxony (as Frederick I) from 1423 until his death.
May 01, 2021 · Frederick III, byname Frederick the Wise, German Friedrich der Weise, (born Jan. 17, 1463, Torgau, Saxony—died May 5, 1525, Lochau, near Torgau), elector of Saxony who worked for constitutional reform of the Holy Roman Empire and protected Martin Luther after Luther was placed under the imperial ban in 1521.
Frederick I, byname Frederick The Warlike, German Friedrich Der Streitbare, (born April 11, 1370—died Jan. 4, 1428, Altenburg, Thuringia), elector of Saxony who secured the electorship for the House of Wettin, thus ensuring that dynasty’s future importance in German politics.
Frederick II, byname Frederick The Gentle, or Mild, German Friedrich Der Sanftmütige, (born Aug. 22, 1411, Leipzig—died Sept. 7, 1464, Leipzig), Saxon elector (1428–64) and eldest son of Frederick the Warlike; he successfully defended his electorship against the Ascanian Saxe-Lauenburg line and instituted regular diets in his territories.
- Early life
- Reign as Elector
Frederick Christian was the Prince-Elector of Saxony for fewer than three months in 1763. He was a member of the House of Wettin. He was the third but eldest surviving son of Frederick Augustus II, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, by his wife, Maria Josepha of Austria.
A weak child since his birth, he suffered paralysis in one foot and was dependent on wheelchairs early in life. In a well-known portrait, which shows his Wettin and Wittelsbach relatives around him, he appears in his wheelchair. Today, this painting is shown in the Schloss Nymphenburg. His mother tried repeatedly to induce him to take monastic vows and renounce his succession rights in favour of his younger brothers, but he refused. The early deaths of his two older brothers, Frederick Augustus,
In Munich on 13 June 1747 and again in Dresden on 20 June 1747, Frederick Christian married his cousin Maria Antonia of Bavaria. Like him, she was exceptionally talented in music and the couple had nine children.
One of his first acts as Elector was the dismissal of the extremely unpopular prime minister, the Count Heinrich von Brühl, who had plunged Saxony into crisis, first with his failed economic policy, but particularly by his catastrophic foreign policy, which caused the Electorate to become involved in the Seven Years' War. He began to reconstruct the wrecked finances of his country through his "Rétablissements": reforms of the policies of the electorate states. Through economic ...
- Early years
- Elector of Saxony
- Final days
- Marriage and family
John Frederick I, called the Magnanimous, was the Elector of Saxony and head of the Schmalkaldic League.
John Frederick was the eldest son of Elector John by his first wife, Sophie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His mother died fourteen days after his birth, on 12 July 1503. John Frederick received his education from George Spalatin, whom he highly esteemed during his whole life. Spalatin was Martin Luther's friend and advisor and thus, through Spalatin's schooling, John Frederick developed a devotion to the teachings of Martin Luther. His knowledge of history was comprehensive, and his library, which ex
In 1532, John Frederick succeeded his father as elector. In the beginning he reigned with his half-brother, John Ernest, but in 1542 became sole ruler. Chancellor Brück, who for years had guided the foreign relations of the country with ability and prudence, remained also his councilor, but his open and impulsive nature often led him to disregard the propositions of his more experienced adviser, so that the country was in frequent danger, especially as John Frederick was not a far-sighted ...
Emperor Charles V condemned John Frederick to death as a convicted rebel; but, not to lose time in the siege of Wittenberg, which was defended by John Frederick's wife, Sybille, he did not execute the sentence and entered into negotiations. To save his life, protect his wife and sons, and avert further hostilities, John Frederick conceded the Capitulation of Wittenberg, and, after having been compelled to resign the government of his country in favor of Maurice, his condemnation was changed into
The sudden attack upon the emperor by Elector Maurice made an end of John Frederick's imprisonment, and he was released on 1 September 1552. He firmly refused to bind himself to comply in matters of religion with the decisions of a future council or diet, declaring that he was resolved to adhere until his grave to the doctrine contained in the Augsburg Confession. His homeward journey was a triumphal march. He met his family after an absence of five years at Wolfersdorf Castle which he had built
In Torgau on 9 February 1527 John Frederick married Sibylle of Cleves. They had four sons
John Frederick, byname John Frederick the Magnanimous, German Johann Friedrich der Grossmütige, (born June 30, 1503, Torgau, Saxony—died March 3, 1554, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), last elector of the Ernestine branch of the Saxon House of Wettin and leader of the Protestant Schmalkaldic League.