Frederick V was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and reigned as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620. He was forced to abdicate both roles, and the brevity of his reign in Bohemia earned him the derisive sobriquet "the Winter King". Frederick was born at the Jagdschloss Deinschwang near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate. He was the son of Frederick IV and of Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau, the daughter of William the Silent and Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpen Read Morehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_V,_Elector_Palatine
Frederick V was the Elector Palatine of the Rhine in the Holy Roman Empire from 1610 to 1623, and reigned as King of Bohemia from 1619 to 1620. He was forced to abdicate both roles, and the brevity of his reign in Bohemia earned him the derisive sobriquet "the Winter King". Frederick was born at the Jagdschloss Deinschwang near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate. He was the son of Frederick IV and of Louise Juliana of Orange-Nassau, the daughter of William the Silent and Charlotte de Bourbon-Montpen
Aug 22, 2020 · Frederick V, (born Aug. 26, 1596, Amberg, Upper Palatinate [Germany]—died Nov. 29, 1632, Mainz), elector Palatine of the Rhine, king of Bohemia (as Frederick I, 1619–20), and director of the Protestant Union.
- Youth, 1596–1610
- Controversy Over Guardianship, 1610–1614
- Marriage to Elizabeth Stuart
- Electoral Reign Before The Thirty Years' War, 1614–1618
- King of Bohemia, 1619-1620
- Fall of Frederick's Ancestral Lands, 1621–22
- Death, 1632
- Family and Children
- External Links
Frederick was born on 26 August 1596 at the Jagdschloss Deinschwang (a hunting lodge) near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate. His father, Frederick IV was the ruler of Electoral Palatinate; his mother was Louise Juliana of Nassau, the daughter of William I of Orange and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier. A member of the House of Palatinate-Simmern, Frederick was related to almost all of the leading families of the Holy Roman Empire and a number of diplomats and dignitaries attended his baptism at Amberg on 6 October 1596. The House of Palatinate-Simmern, a cadet branch of the House of Wittelsbach, was noted for its attachment to Calvinism; this was in marked contrast to the wider House of Wittelsbach, headed by Duke Maximilian, which was deeply devoted to the Roman Catholic Church. The capital of the Electoral Palatinate, Heidelberg, was suffering from an outbreak of Bubonic plague at this time, so Frederick spent his first two years in the Upper Palatinate before being brought to Heidel...
On 19 September 1610, Frederick's father, Frederick IV, died from "extravagant living"; Frederick V was only 14 years old at the time of his father's death. Under the terms of the Golden Bull of 1356, Frederick's closest male relative would serve as his guardian and as regent of Electoral Palatinate until Frederick reached the age of majority. However, his nearest male relative, Wolfgang William, Count Palatine of Neuburg, was a Catholic, so, shortly before his death, Frederick IV had named John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken as his son's guardian. Frederick V welcomed John to Heidelberg as his new guardian, whereas Wolfgang William was denied entry. This led to a heated dispute among the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1613, Matthias, Holy Roman Emperorintervened in the dispute, with the result being that Frederick V was able to begin his personal rule in the Electoral Palatinate even though he was still underage. The dispute was ended in 1614, when Frederick reached the ag...
Frederick IV's marriage policy had been designed to solidify Electoral Palatinate's position within the Reformed camp in Europe. Two of Frederick V's sisters were married to leading Protestant princes: his sister Luise Juliane to his one-time guardian John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, and his sister Elizabeth Charlotte to George William, Elector of Brandenburg. Frederick IV had hoped that his daughter Katharina Sofie would marry the future Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, although this never came to pass. In keeping with his father's policy, Frederick V sought a marriage to Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of James I of England and VI of Scotland. However, Frederick was only an Elector, and it was likely that James would seek to marry his daughter to a king. James had initially considered marrying Elizabeth to Louis XIII of France, but these plans were rejected by his advisers. Frederick's advisers in the Electoral Palatinate were worried that if Elizabeth Stuart were married to a Catho...
Upon his eighteenth birthday on 26 August 1614, Frederick assumed personal control of Electoral Palatinate. One of his first acts was to attend a meeting of the Protestant Union. During this meeting, Frederick was struck by a fever and nearly died. This illness changed his personality profoundly: in the wake of the illness, contemporaries described him as melancholy and possibly depressed. As such, Frederick placed large amounts of responsibility in his chancellor, Christian I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg. Frederick undertook a large building campaign, designed to glorify his regime. In addition to the renovations to Heidelberg Castle mentioned above, Frederick commissioned a new courtyard garden, the Hortus Palatinus, designed by English gardener Inigo Jones and French engineer Salomon de Caus. Frederick was depicted as Apollo and as Hercules. Politically, Frederick positioned himself as a leader of the Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire, and as a defender of the liberty of...
Background and plans
The Kingdom of Bohemia was an elective monarchy, and, in spite of the high title of a kingdom, was a part of the Holy Roman Empire. Since 1526, the Kings of Bohemia had all been members of the House of Habsburg; since 1555, these Kings had also been Holy Roman Emperors. In the early seventeenth century, however, Bohemia faced a political crisis. The Estates of the realm of Bohemia became worried that the Habsburgs were planning to transform Bohemia into an absolute monarchy. A large number of...
Frederick in Prague
On 26 August 1619, the states of the Bohemian Confederacy elected Frederick as new King of Bohemia; Frederick first learned of his election on 29 August in Amberg. Two days later, Ferdinand II was elected as Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick was the only elector who voted against Ferdinand; even the Protestant electors, John George I, Elector of Saxony, and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg, voted for Ferdinand. The electoral college also condemned the Bohemian Confederation's attempt to rem...
Frederick was crowned with the Crown of Saint Wenceslas in St. Vitus Cathedral on 4 November 1619. The coronation was conducted not by the Archbishop of Prague but by the Utraquist administrator of the diocese, Georg Dicastus, and a Protestant elder, Johannes Cyrill von Třebič. The liturgy was modelled on that used at the coronation of Charles IV, with only a few parts altered. The litany was sung – per the Catholic tradition – rather than spoken as was normally done by the Calvinists. Freder...
In summer 1621, John II, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, Frederick's former guardian who had served as regent of the Electoral Palatinate when Frederick left for Prague, resigned. However, Ernst von Mansfeld continued to occupy a portion of the Upper Palatinate and had successfully resisted efforts by Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly to dislodge him. Mansfeld crossed into Rhenish Palatinate in early 1622, and on 21 April 1622, Frederick joined Mansfeld there. Frederick attempted to convince other Protestant princes to reconstitute the Protestant Union, but met with limited success. Frederick's cause was boosted by an 27 April 1622 victory over Tilly's forces at the Battle of Wiesloch near Wiesloch, but this boost was short lived. Frederick's forces under the command of Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach were defeated at the Battle of Wimpfen on 6 May 1622; and then forces under Christian the Younger of Brunswick were soundly defeated at the Battle of Höchston 20 June 1622. Fr...
On 4 July 1630, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden intervened in the Thirty Years' War. On 16 September 1631, Gustavus Adolphus' forces defeated Tilly's forces at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631). Tilly was defeated the following year, and Gustavus Adolphus' forces swept into southern Germany. When Oppenheim was captured in December 1631, Frederick believed the time was ripe for him to reestablish himself in the Palatinate, and he left for Heidelberg. In February 1632, Frederick met Gustavus Adolphus at Frankfurt, with Gustavus Adolphus paying Frederick full royal honours. However, Gustavus Adolphus was not prepared to offer Frederick support for restoring him in the Palatinate because England and the Netherlands had not signed off on such a proposal. Frederick subsequently took part in Gustavus Adolphus' march into the Duchy of Bavaria, and was present for the march into Munich on 17 May 1632. Upon Frederick's pressing his case with Gustavus Adolphus, Gustavus Adolphus told Frederick that...
He married Elizabeth Stuart, the daughter of James VI of Scotland and I of England and of Anne of Denmark in the Chapel Royal, Whitehallon 14 February 1613 and had the following children: 1. Frederick Henry(1614–1629)—(drowned) 2. Charles Louis (1617–1680), became Elector Palatinein 1648 3. Elisabeth(1618–1680) 4. Rupert (1619–1682) of English Civil Warfame. 5. Maurice(1620–1652) who also served in the English Civil War. 6. Louise(1622–1709) 7. Louis (1624–1625) 8. Edward(1625–1663) 9. Henriette Marie(1626–1651) 10. Philip(1627–1650) 11. Charlotte(1628–1631) 12. Sophia (1630–1714), married Elector Ernest Augustus of Hanover; heiress of England by the Act of Settlement, 1701. Her son became King George I of Great Britainin 1714. 13. Gustavus(1632–1641), died young, of epilepsy.Purcell, Brennan C. (2003), The Winter King: Frederick V of the Palatinate and the Coming of the Thirty Years' War, London: Ashgate, ISBN 0-7546-3401-9Yates, Frances (1972), The Rosicrucian Enlightenment, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-7380-1
Frederick V, Elector Palatine Frederick V (_de. Friedrich V.) (August 26 1596 – November 29 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23), and, as Frederick I (_cs. Fridrich Falcký), King of Bohemia (1619–20, for his short reign here often nicknamed the Winter King, Czech "Zimní král").
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Frederick was born at the jagdschloss Deinschwang (a hunting lodge) near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate. He was the son of Frederick IV and of Louise Juliana of Nassau, the daughter of William the Silent and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier.
- Christie Dickason
Frederick V (German: Friedrich V.; 26 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23), and, as Frederick I (Czech: Fridrich Falcký), King of Bohemia (1619–20); for his short reign he is often nicknamed the Winter King (Czech: Zimní král; German: Winterkönig).
1596–1632, king of Bohemia (1619–20), elector palatine (1610–20) as Frederick V. The Protestant diet of Bohemia deposed the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II Ferdinand II, 1578–1637, Holy Roman emperor (1619–37), king of Bohemia (1617–37) and of Hungary (1618–37); successor of Holy Roman Emperor Matthias.
Frederick V, Elector Palatine (1596-1632), dressed as King of Bohemia In 1619, the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine accepted the throne of Bohemia from the Bohemian estates.
Frederick V, Elector Palatine (Jagdschloß Deinschwang, 16 August 1596 - Mainz, 29 November 1632). Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate (Neumarkt, 19 November 1597 - Crossen an der Oder , 26 April 1660); married in 1616 to Elector George William of Brandenburg .