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What exactly is functional programming?

What are the pros and cons of functional programming?

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What is the difference between object oriented and functional programming?

2. ### Functional programming - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming

Functional programming is an active area of research in the field of programming language theory. There are several peer-reviewed publication venues focusing on functional programming, including the International Conference on Functional Programming, the Journal of Functional Programming, and the Symposium on Trends in Functional Programming.

3. ### Functional Programming - Introduction - Tutorialspoint

www.tutorialspoint.com/functional_programming/...
• Functional Programming – Characteristics
• Functional Programming – Advantages
• Functional Programming vs. Object-Oriented Programming
• Efficiency of A Program Code

The most prominent characteristics of functional programming are as follows − 1. Functional programming languages are designed on the concept of mathematical functions that use conditional expressions and recursion to perform computation. 2. Functional programming supports higher-order functions and lazy evaluation features. 3. Functional programming languages don’t support flow Controls like loop statements and conditional statements like If-Else and Switch Statements. They directly use the...

Functional programming offers the following advantages − 1. Bugs-Free Code − Functional programming does not support state, so there are no side-effect results and we can write error-free codes. 2. Efficient Parallel Programming − Functional programming languages have NO Mutable state, so there are no state-change issues. One can program \\"Functions\\" to work parallel as \\"instructions\\". Such codes support easy reusability and testability. 3. Efficiency − Functional programs consist of independe...

The following table highlights the major differences between functional programming and object-oriented programming −

The efficiency of a programming code is directly proportional to the algorithmic efficiency and the execution speed. Good efficiency ensures higher performance.The factors that affect the efficiency of a program includes − 1. The speed of the machine 2. Compiler speed 3. Operating system 4. Choosing right Programming language 5. The way of data in a program is organized 6. Algorithm used to solve the problem The efficiency of a programming language can be improved by performing the following...

4. ### What is Functional Programming? Tutorial with Example

www.guru99.com/functional-programming-tutorial.htm

Jul 25, 2020 · What is Functional Programming? Functional programming (also called FP) is a way of thinking about software construction by creating pure functions. It avoid concepts of shared state, mutable data observed in Object Oriented Programming. Functional langauges empazies on expressions and declarations rather than execution of statements.

5. ### Functional Programming - Video Results

• What is functional programming | Easy way
• Functional Programming in Java - Full Course
• Why Isn't Functional Programming the Norm? – Richard Feldman
• Functional Programming with PHP
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6. ### What is Functional Programming? - dummies

www.dummies.com/programming/what-is-functional...
• Understanding The Goals of Functional Programming
• Using The Pure Approach to Functional Programming
• Using The Impure Approach to Functional Programming

Imperative programming, the kind of programming that most developers have done until now, is akin to an assembly line, where data moves through a series of steps in a specific order to produce a particular result. The process is fixed and rigid, and the person implementing the process must build a new assembly line every time an application requires a new result. Object-oriented programming (OOP) simply modularizes and hides the steps, but the underlying paradigm is the same. Even with modula...

Programming languages that use the pure approach to the functional programming paradigm rely on lambda calculus principles, for the most part. In addition, a pure-approach language allows the use of functional programming techniques only, so that the result is always a functional program. The pure-approach language is Haskell because it provides the purest implementation, according to articles about functional programming. Haskell is also a relatively popular language, according to the TIOBE...

Many developers have come to see the benefits of functional programming. However, they also don’t want to give up the benefits of their existing language, so they use a language that mixes functional features with one of the other programming paradigms. For example, you can find functional programming features in languages such as C++, C#, and Java. When working with an impure language, you need to exercise care because your code won’t work in a purely functional manner, and the features that...

7. ### Functional Programming - What Is It and Why Does It Matter ...

www.keycdn.com/blog/functional-programming
• What Is Functional Programming?
• The Basics of Functional Programming
• Variables That Don’T Vary
• Looping in Functional Programming
• Reusability and Higher Order Functions
• Declarative vs Imperative
• Functional Programming - in Summary

Functional programming, or FP, is a programming paradigm for developing software using functions. Following the FP philosophy entails foregoing things like shared states, mutable data and side effects. Functional programming is a declarative paradigm because it relies on expressions and declarations rather than statements. Unlike procedures that depend on a local or global state, value outputs in FP depend only on the arguments passed to the function. Taking outside effects, or state changes...

Pure functions operate only on their input parameters. Take the following JavaScript code:Since the z variable isn’t included in the add function, the function only reads and writes to its inputs, x and y. Therefore, the function is pure. Including z would make it impure.To be useful, pure functions must take parameters and return something. You can make use of the above pure function as follows:Pure functions always return the same output when given the same input. Functions like writeFile(f...

To illustrate the difference between imperative programming and functional programming, let’s look at a small code sample:In imperative programming, this means “take the current value of x, add 1 and put the result back into x.” In functional programming, however, x = x + 1 is illegal. That’s because there are technically no variables in functional programming. While we still call stored values “variables” in FP, those values are always the same, so they don’t actually vary.How can you accomp...

Functional programming doesn’t use loop constructs such as repeat, for and while. Instead, it relies on recursion for looping. Take the following JavaScript examples:The simple loop construct can be made functional like this:These two very different approaches give you the same value, 55. In the latter example, recursion performs the same task as the loop by calling itself with a new start and a new accumulator. The original values are not modified; rather, new values are calculated using the...

Another perk of functional programming is that it facilitates reuse of functional utilities to more efficiently process data. Unlike OOP, which colocates methods and data in objects so that they can only operate on designated data types, all data types are fair game in functional programming.Fortunately, JavaScript offers first-class functions, which means that they can be treated like data, assigned to variables and passed to other functions. For example, you could use the higher order funct...

Because functional programming is a declarative paradigm, program logic is expressed without explicit instructions for flow control. While imperative programs dedicate many lines of code to flow control, declarative programs abstract the process.For example, the following imperative mapping takes an array of numbers and returns another array with each number multiplied by 3:The same thing can be accomplished with declarative mapping much more succinctly thanks to the functional Array.prototyp...

Working in the web development industry requires adaptability. The more you know, the more opportunities you’ll have for advancing your career. If you don’t keep expanding your repertoire of skills, you could find yourself unable to compete in the job market.If you’re looking for a way to write code more concisely, concurrently and even want to improve the performance of your code, learning how to use functional programming will be beneficial.

8. ### A practical introduction to functional programming

maryrosecook.com/blog/post/a-practical...

Many functional programming articles teach abstract functional techniques. That is, composition, pipelining, higher order functions. This one is different. It shows examples of imperative, unfunctional code that people write every day and translates these examples to a functional style.

9. ### Functional Programming Paradigm - GeeksforGeeks

www.geeksforgeeks.org/functional-programming...

Functional programming is a programming paradigm in which we try to bind everything in pure mathematical functions style. It is a declarative type of programming style. Its main focus is on “what to solve” in contrast to an imperative style where the main focus is “how to solve”. It uses expressions instead of statements.

10. ### Functional Programming in Python - Stack Abuse

stackabuse.com/functional-programming-in-python
• Introduction
• Functional Programming Concepts
• Lambda Expressions
• Built-In Higher Order Functions
• List Comprehensions
• Some Things to Consider
• Conclusion

Functional Programming is a popular programming paradigm closely linked to computer science's mathematical foundations. While there is no strict definition of what constitutes a functional language, we consider them to be languages that use functions to transform data.Python is not a functional programming language but it does incorporate some of its concepts alongside other programming paradigms. With Python, it's easy to write code in a functional style, which may provide the best solution...

Functional languages are declarative languages, they tell the computer what result they want. This is usually contrasted with imperative languages that tell the computer what steps to take to solve a problem. Python is usually coded in an imperative way but can use the declarative style if necessary.Some of Python's features were influenced by Haskell, a purely functional programming language. To get a better appreciation of what a functional language is, let's look at features in Haskell tha...

A lambda expression is an anonymous function. When we create functions in Python, we use the def keyword and give it a name. Lambda expressions allow us to define a function much more quickly.Let's create a Higher Order Function hof_product that returns a function that multiplies a number by a predefined value:The lambda expression begins with the keyword lambda followed by the function arguments. After the colon is the code returned by the lambda. This ability to create functions \\"on the go\\"...

Python has implemented some commonly used Higher Order Functions from Functional Programming Languages that makes processing iterable objects like lists and iterators much easier. For space/memory efficiency reasons, these functions return an iterator instead of a list.

A popular Python feature that appears prominently in Functional Programming Languages is list comprehensions. Like the map and filter functions, list comprehensions allow us to modify data in a concise, expressive way.Let's try our previous examples with map and filter with list comprehensions instead:A basic list comprehensions follows this format: [result for singular-element in list-name].If we'd like to filter objects, then we need to use the if keyword:Every map and filter expression can...

It's well known that the creator of Python, Guido van Rossum, did not intend for Python to have functional features but did appreciate some of the benefits its introduction has brought to the language. He discussed the history of Functional Programming language features in one of his blog posts. As a result, the language implementations have not been optimized for Functional Programming features.Furthermore, the Python developer community does not encourage using the vast array of Functional...

Functional Programming is a programming paradigm with software primarily composed of functions processing data throughout its execution. Although there's not one singular definition of what is Functional Programming, we were able to examine some prominent features in Functional Languages: Pure Functions, Immutability, and Higher Order Functions.Python allows us to code in a functional, declarative style. It even has support for many common functional features like Lambda Expressions and the m...

11. ### Functional Programming vs OOP | Top 8 Useful Differences To Know

www.educba.com/functional-programming-vs-oop

Functional programming also supports the programming languages like Lisp, Clojure, Wolfram, Erlang, Haskell, F#, R, and other prominent and domain-specific languages. Functional programming is a great fit for data science work and R is the popular language among the data scientists.

12. ### Functional Programming in C#: A Brief Guide - Hamid Mosalla

hamidmosalla.com/2019/04/25/functional...

Apr 25, 2019 · Functional programming is actually older than computers. It came basically from mathematical logic (lambda calculus) . In functional programming we program with functions and they don’t change or mutate anything, they just map input to output. Here is a good definition which I’ve found in a quora question.