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  1. Christopher Toyne is a producer, multi-cam director and associate director with wide experience in many disciplines of media production. He has just completed producing the independent feature White Air (2007) with Riley Smith Dominique Swain and Tom Sizemore. Throughout 2005 he returned to his love of music programming, as supervising producer ...

    • Christopher Francis Toyne
    • October 24, 1947 in Auckland, New Zealand
  2. Christopher Toyne, Actor: Cell Count. Christopher Toyne is a producer, multi-cam director and associate director with wide experience in many disciplines of media production. He has just completed producing the independent feature White Air (2007) with Riley Smith Dominique Swain and Tom Sizemore. Throughout 2005 he returned to his love of music programming, as supervising producer in ...

    • Early Years
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    Beauvoir was born on 9 January 1908 into a bourgeois Parisian family in the 6th arrondissement. Her parents were Georges Bertrand de Beauvoir, a lawyer, who once aspired to be an actor, and Françoise Beauvoir (née Brasseur), a wealthy banker's daughter and devout Catholic. Simone's sister, Hélène, was born two years later. The family struggled to maintain their bourgeois status after losing much of their fortune shortly after World War I, and Françoise insisted the two daughters be sent to a prestigious convent school. Beauvoir was intellectually precocious, fueled by her father's encouragement; he reportedly would boast, "Simone thinks like a man!" Because of her family's straitened circumstances, she could no longer rely on her dowry, and like other middle-class girls of her age, her marriage opportunities were put at risk. She took this opportunity to take steps towards earning a living for herself. She first worked with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Claude Lévi-Strauss, when all thr...

    From 1929 until 1943, Beauvoir taught at the lycée level until she could support herself solely on the earnings of her writings. She taught at the Lycée Montgrand[fr] (Marseille), the Lycée Jeanne-d'Arc (Rouen)[fr], and the Lycée Molière (Paris)[fr](1936–39). Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre met during her college years. Intrigued by her determination as an educator, he sought out to make their relationship romantic. However, she had no interest in doing so. During October 1929, Jean-Paul Sartre and Beauvoir became a couple and, after they were confronted by her father, Sartre asked her to marry him on a provisional basis: One day while they were sitting on a bench outside the Louvre, he said, "Let's sign a two-year lease". Though Beauvoir wrote, "Marriage was impossible. I had no dowry", scholars point out that her ideal relationships described in The Second Sex and elsewhere bore little resemblances to the marriage standards of the day.Instead, she and Sartre entered into a lifelong...

    Beauvoir's prominent open relationships at times overshadowed her substantial academic reputation. A scholar lecturing with her chastised their "distinguished [Harvard] audience [because] every question asked about Sartre concerned his work, while all those asked about Beauvoir concerned her personal life." Beginning in 1929, Beauvoir and Sartre were partners and remained so for 51 years, until his death in 1980. She chose never to marry and never had children. This gave her the time to advance her education and engage in political causes, write and teach, and take lovers. She lived with Claude Lanzmannfrom 1952 to 1959. Perhaps her most famous lover was American author Nelson Algren, whom she met in Chicago in 1947, and to whom she wrote across the Atlantic as "my beloved husband." Algren won the National Book Award for The Man with the Golden Arm in 1950, and in 1954, Beauvoir won France's most prestigious literary prize for The Mandarins,in which Algren is the character Lewis Bro...

    She Came to Stay

    Beauvoir published her first novel She Came to Stay in 1943. It has been assumed that it is inspired by her and Sartre's sexual relationship with Olga Kosakiewicz and Wanda Kosakiewicz. Olga was one of her students in the Rouen secondary school where Beauvoir taught during the early 1930s. She grew fond of Olga. Sartre tried to pursue Olga but she rejected him, so he began a relationship with her sister Wanda. Upon his death, Sartre was still supporting Wanda. He also supported Olga for years...

    Existentialist ethics

    In 1944, Beauvoir wrote her first philosophical essay, Pyrrhus et Cinéas, a discussion on existentialist ethics. She continued her exploration of existentialism through her second essay The Ethics of Ambiguity (1947); it is perhaps the most accessible entry into French existentialism. In the essay, Beauvoir clears up some inconsistencies that many, Sartre included, have found in major existentialist works such as Being and Nothingness. In The Ethics of Ambiguity, Beauvoir confronts the existe...

    Les Temps modernes

    At the end of World War II, Beauvoir and Sartre edited Les Temps modernes, a political journal which Sartre founded along with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and others. Beauvoir used Les Temps Modernesto promote her own work and explore her ideas on a small scale before fashioning essays and books. Beauvoir remained an editor until her death.

    Beauvoir wrote popular travel diaries about time spent in the United States and China and published essays and fiction rigorously, especially throughout the 1950s and 1960s. She published several volumes of short stories, including The Woman Destroyed, which, like some of her other later work, deals with aging. 1980 saw the publication of When Things of the Spirit Come First, a set of short stories centred around and based upon women important to her earlier years[ambiguous]. Though written long before the novel She Came to Stay, Beauvoir did not at the time consider the stories worth publishing, allowing some forty years to pass before doing so.[clarification needed] Sartre and Merleau-Ponty had a longstanding feud, which led Merleau-Ponty to leave Les Temps Modernes. Beauvoir sided with Sartre and ceased to associate with Merleau-Ponty. In Beauvoir's later years, she hosted the journal's editorial meetings in her flat and contributed more than Sartre, whom she often had to force[c...

    Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex is considered a foundational work in the history of feminism. Beauvoir had denied being a feminist multiple times but ultimately admitted that she was one after the influential Second Sex became crucial in the world of feminism. The work has had a profound influence, opening the way for second wave feminism in the United States, Canada, Australia, and around the world. Despite the fact that Beauvoir has been quoted as saying "There is a certain unreasonable demand that I find a little stupid because it would enclose me, immobilize me completely in a sort of feminist concrete block." Her works on feminism have paved the way for all future feminists. Founders of the second wave read The Second Sex in translation, including Kate Millett, Shulamith Firestone, Juliet Mitchell, Ann Oakley and Germaine Greer. All acknowledged their profound debt to Beauvoir, including visiting her in France, consulting with her at crucial moments, and dedicating works to...

    List of publications

    1. L'Invitée (1943) (English – She Came to Stay) [novel] 2. Pyrrhus et Cinéas(1944) [nonfiction] 3. Le Sang des autres (1945) (English – The Blood of Others) [novel] 4. Les Bouches inutiles (1945) (English - Who Shall Die?) [drama] 5. Tous les hommes sont mortels (1946) (English – All Men Are Mortal) [novel] 6. Pour une morale de l'ambiguïté (1947) (English – The Ethics of Ambiguity) [nonfiction] 7. "America Day by Day" (1948) (English – 1999 – Carol Cosman (Translator and Douglas Brinkley (F...

    Selected translations

    1. Patrick O'Brian was Beauvoir's principal English translator, until he attained commercial success as a novelist. 2. Beauvoir, Simone (1997), ""Introduction" to The Second Sex", in Nicholson, Linda (ed.), The second wave: a reader in feminist theory, New York: Routledge, pp. 11–18, ISBN 9780415917612. 3. Philosophical Writings (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 2004, edited by Margaret A. Simons et al.) contains a selection of essays by Beauvoir translated for the first time into Engli...

    Appignanesi, Lisa, 2005, Simone de Beauvoir, London: Haus, ISBN 1-904950-09-4
    Butler, Judith (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Thinking gender. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-415-90042-3. OCLC 318223176.
    Bair, Deirdre, 1990. Simone de Beauvoir: A Biography. New York: Summit Books, ISBN 0-671-60681-6
  3. Dec 07, 2015 · The most recent one, Revelations, is a quasi-remake of the first story (with, for the first time, a new actor as Pinhead) filmed in a hurry, prompting speculation that it might be one of those movies studios churn out solely so that they can retain the rights to a particular franchise.

  4. Myths of the Near Future is the first of J.G. Ballard’s two major late-career short story collections. In terms of the chronology of when the stories emerged, the anthology spans 1976-1982 – a narrower span of years than any Ballard collection since The Terminal Beach – and so covers much of Ballard’s late flowering of short story output from this period.

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