Gabriel Toyne was born in London on April 5, 1905. His father F. Herbert Toyne was Director of the Brighton Education Committee, although the family spent some of his childhood years in India, where he became a linguist in Indian languages and dialects. He went up to Oxford University in 1925, reading History at Corpus Christi.
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Beauvoir was born on 9 January 1908 into a bourgeois Parisian family in the 6th arrondissement. Her parents were Georges Bertrand de Beauvoir, a lawyer, who once aspired to be an actor, and Françoise Beauvoir (née Brasseur), a wealthy banker's daughter and devout Catholic. Simone's sister, Hélène, was born two years later. The family struggled to maintain their bourgeois status after losing much of their fortune shortly after World War I, and Françoise insisted the two daughters be sent to a prestigious convent school. Beauvoir was intellectually precocious, fueled by her father's encouragement; he reportedly would boast, "Simone thinks like a man!" Because of her family's straitened circumstances, she could no longer rely on her dowry, and like other middle-class girls of her age, her marriage opportunities were put at risk. She took this opportunity to take steps towards earning a living for herself. She first worked with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Claude Lévi-Strauss, when all thr...
From 1929 until 1943, Beauvoir taught at the lycée level until she could support herself solely on the earnings of her writings. She taught at the Lycée Montgrand[fr] (Marseille), the Lycée Jeanne-d'Arc (Rouen)[fr], and the Lycée Molière (Paris)[fr](1936–39). Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre met during her college years. Intrigued by her determination as an educator, he sought out to make their relationship romantic. However, she had no interest in doing so. During October 1929, Jean-Paul Sartre and Beauvoir became a couple and, after they were confronted by her father, Sartre asked her to marry him on a provisional basis: One day while they were sitting on a bench outside the Louvre, he said, "Let's sign a two-year lease". Though Beauvoir wrote, "Marriage was impossible. I had no dowry", scholars point out that her ideal relationships described in The Second Sex and elsewhere bore little resemblances to the marriage standards of the day.Instead, she and Sartre entered into a lifelong...
Beauvoir's prominent open relationships at times overshadowed her substantial academic reputation. A scholar lecturing with her chastised their "distinguished [Harvard] audience [because] every question asked about Sartre concerned his work, while all those asked about Beauvoir concerned her personal life." Beginning in 1929, Beauvoir and Sartre were partners and remained so for 51 years, until his death in 1980. She chose never to marry and never had children. This gave her the time to advance her education and engage in political causes, write and teach, and take lovers. She lived with Claude Lanzmannfrom 1952 to 1959. Perhaps her most famous lover was American author Nelson Algren, whom she met in Chicago in 1947, and to whom she wrote across the Atlantic as "my beloved husband." Algren won the National Book Award for The Man with the Golden Arm in 1950, and in 1954, Beauvoir won France's most prestigious literary prize for The Mandarins,in which Algren is the character Lewis Bro...
She Came to Stay
Beauvoir published her first novel She Came to Stay in 1943. It has been assumed that it is inspired by her and Sartre's sexual relationship with Olga Kosakiewicz and Wanda Kosakiewicz. Olga was one of her students in the Rouen secondary school where Beauvoir taught during the early 1930s. She grew fond of Olga. Sartre tried to pursue Olga but she rejected him, so he began a relationship with her sister Wanda. Upon his death, Sartre was still supporting Wanda. He also supported Olga for years...
In 1944, Beauvoir wrote her first philosophical essay, Pyrrhus et Cinéas, a discussion on existentialist ethics. She continued her exploration of existentialism through her second essay The Ethics of Ambiguity (1947); it is perhaps the most accessible entry into French existentialism. In the essay, Beauvoir clears up some inconsistencies that many, Sartre included, have found in major existentialist works such as Being and Nothingness. In The Ethics of Ambiguity, Beauvoir confronts the existe...
Les Temps modernes
At the end of World War II, Beauvoir and Sartre edited Les Temps modernes, a political journal which Sartre founded along with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and others. Beauvoir used Les Temps Modernesto promote her own work and explore her ideas on a small scale before fashioning essays and books. Beauvoir remained an editor until her death.
Beauvoir wrote popular travel diaries about time spent in the United States and China and published essays and fiction rigorously, especially throughout the 1950s and 1960s. She published several volumes of short stories, including The Woman Destroyed, which, like some of her other later work, deals with aging. 1980 saw the publication of When Things of the Spirit Come First, a set of short stories centred around and based upon women important to her earlier years[ambiguous]. Though written long before the novel She Came to Stay, Beauvoir did not at the time consider the stories worth publishing, allowing some forty years to pass before doing so.[clarification needed] Sartre and Merleau-Ponty had a longstanding feud, which led Merleau-Ponty to leave Les Temps Modernes. Beauvoir sided with Sartre and ceased to associate with Merleau-Ponty. In Beauvoir's later years, she hosted the journal's editorial meetings in her flat and contributed more than Sartre, whom she often had to force[c...
Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex is considered a foundational work in the history of feminism. Beauvoir had denied being a feminist multiple times but ultimately admitted that she was one after the influential Second Sex became crucial in the world of feminism. The work has had a profound influence, opening the way for second wave feminism in the United States, Canada, Australia, and around the world. Despite the fact that Beauvoir has been quoted as saying "There is a certain unreasonable demand that I find a little stupid because it would enclose me, immobilize me completely in a sort of feminist concrete block." Her works on feminism have paved the way for all future feminists. Founders of the second wave read The Second Sex in translation, including Kate Millett, Shulamith Firestone, Juliet Mitchell, Ann Oakley and Germaine Greer. All acknowledged their profound debt to Beauvoir, including visiting her in France, consulting with her at crucial moments, and dedicating works to...
List of publications
1. L'Invitée (1943) (English – She Came to Stay) [novel] 2. Pyrrhus et Cinéas(1944) [nonfiction] 3. Le Sang des autres (1945) (English – The Blood of Others) [novel] 4. Les Bouches inutiles (1945) (English - Who Shall Die?) [drama] 5. Tous les hommes sont mortels (1946) (English – All Men Are Mortal) [novel] 6. Pour une morale de l'ambiguïté (1947) (English – The Ethics of Ambiguity) [nonfiction] 7. "America Day by Day" (1948) (English – 1999 – Carol Cosman (Translator and Douglas Brinkley (F...
1. Patrick O'Brian was Beauvoir's principal English translator, until he attained commercial success as a novelist. 2. Beauvoir, Simone (1997), ""Introduction" to The Second Sex", in Nicholson, Linda (ed.), The second wave: a reader in feminist theory, New York: Routledge, pp. 11–18, ISBN 9780415917612. 3. Philosophical Writings (Urbana : University of Illinois Press, 2004, edited by Margaret A. Simons et al.) contains a selection of essays by Beauvoir translated for the first time into Engli...Appignanesi, Lisa, 2005, Simone de Beauvoir, London: Haus, ISBN 1-904950-09-4Butler, Judith (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Thinking gender. Routledge. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-415-90042-3. OCLC 318223176.Bair, Deirdre, 1990. Simone de Beauvoir: A Biography. New York: Summit Books, ISBN 0-671-60681-6
Dec 01, 2021 · Montage by Judy Leech. Image on front page: Caricature of Maurice Moscovitch by Len Reynolds, 1927. National Library of Australia, Canberra. As detailed in ‘Caught in the Act: Theatrical cartoons and caricatures’ (Part 2), the popularity of live theatre in Australia from 1900 through to the 1920s wa...
Thor: The Dark World (2013) cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more.
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1. Robin Hood (Robin of Locksley), a Saxon nobleman returned from the Crusades and forced into outlawry in Sherwood Forest. Played by Richard Greene. 2. The Sheriff of Nottingham, Robin Hood's enemy who schemes to capture the outlaw. Played by Alan Wheatley. 3. Little John, Robin Hood's trusted friend and his second in command. Played by Archie Duncan. Duncan was briefly replaced by Rufus Cruikshank for ten episodes after Duncan was injured when a horse bolted toward the spectators, mostly ch...
1. Alan-a-Dale, a member of Robin Hood's band. Played by John Schlesinger (two episodes), Richard Coleman(3 episodes/Series 4). 2. Ethel, Derwent's wife played by Paula Byrne
1. Queen Eleanor, mother of King Richard and Prince John played by (Jill Esmond) (2 episodes, series 1) 2. King Richard the Lionheart played by Patrick Barr(2 episodes, series 1) 3. Prince John, the scheming friend of the Sheriff of Nottingham and brother of King Richard. Played by Donald Pleasence, Hubert Gregg, and Brian Haines. 4. Princess Avice of Gloucester, the first wife of Prince John played by Helen Cherrybefore her divorce from John, 5. Isabella of Angoulême, the second wife of Prin...
The series is set in the 12th Century, during the reign of King Richard. Robin of Locksley, a nobleman, is forced into the life of an outlaw, dwelling in Sherwood Forest with a band of men who right the wrongs committed by the rich and powerful against the poor and defenceless. Given the name Robin Hood by the outlaw band's leader, Will Scatlock, who was fatally wounded. Hood's enemy in the series is the Sheriff of Nottingham who, with his cohorts, schemes to capture the outlaw by any means possible. Lady Marian Fitzwalter (Maid Marian), a young noblewoman and Robin Hood's lover, keeps him informed of the Sheriff of Nottingham's whereabouts and intentions. Episodes are punctuated with manly deeds of derring-do, tense escapes and pursuits, princely tournaments, the thundering hoof-beats of powerful steeds, the clattering of flashing swords, and the whizzing of fatally-placed arrows. In "A Year and A Day" (Series 2), a refugee peasant explains that, under English law, a peasant who es...
The Adventures of Robin Hood was produced by Hannah Weinstein, who had left-wing political views. Weinstein hired many blacklisted American writers to script episodes of the series: these included Ring Lardner Jr., Waldo Salt, Robert Lees, and Adrian Scott. Howard Koch, who was also blacklisted, served for a while as the series' script editor. The blacklisted writers were credited under pseudonyms, to avoid the attention of studio executives. (The sponsored prints of the first five episodes o...
Whilst interiors were filmed at Nettlefold Studios, location shooting for the series took place on the nearby Wisley common, Wisley, Surrey, and at the adjoining Foxwarren Park Estate, near Cobham, owned by Hannah Weinstein. Horses used for filming were also stabled at Foxwarren house, which had a projection room for viewing daily film rushes and completed films. In 1956 a replica castle exterior, complete with drawbridge, was built in the grounds of the estate for filming of 'The Adventures...
1. Directors of Photography – Gerald Gibbs (series 1), Ken Hodges (series 1–4), Ernest Palmer (series 2), Michael Reed(series 2–3), Ian Craig (series 4) 2. Camera Operators – Noel Rowland (series 1–4), Eric Williams (series 4) 3. Art Directors – Peter Proud (series 1), John Blezard (series 2–4), Peter Mullins (series 2–3) 4. Production Designer – Peter Proud (series 2) 5. Art Supervisor – William Kellner(series 2) 6. Assistant Director – Christopher Noble 7. Sound – H.P. Pearson 8. Film Edito...
The series was an immediate hit on both sides of the Atlantic, drawing 32,000,000 viewers per week. Sapphire films were commissioned to make four other series by Lew Grade: The Adventures of Sir Lancelot (1956/57) (broadcast by NBC on Monday nights at 8.00 pm), The Buccaneers (1956/57) (broadcast by CBS on Saturday nights at 7.30 pm), Sword of Freedom (1957/58), and The Four Just Men (1958/59). ITC continued to make and sell TV series to the US until the late 1970s, including The Saint, The Prisoner, Thunderbirds, Space 1999, The Muppet Showand many more.
Many licensed products and knockoffs were sold, including books, jigsaw puzzles, iron-on patches, toy bows and arrows, a series of bubble gum cards, and more. The "Robin Hood" shoe brand sporting Richard Green's likeness on the interior heel lasted long after the series stopped production. Magazine Enterprises featured Richard Greene photos on three Robin Hood comic books. Robin and Marian made the cover of TV Guide in the Week of 12–18 May 1956.
In Region 1, Mill Creek Entertainmenthas released all 4 seasons on DVD. They have also released a complete series set featuring all 143 episodes of the series. Alpha Videohas released 22 single volume collections of the series, featuring various episodes. In Region 2, Network DVDhas released all 4 seasons on DVD in the UK. Three DVD boxsets of the series have also been released in Germany by KNM Home Entertainment as "Die Abenteuer Von Robin Hood" with German language soundtracks in 2009.
In the 1990s, three movie-length compilation features (approx. 90 min. each) were created from the series by producers Philip May & Joseph Shields, through editing parts of the various episodes, though not necessarily in chronological order. These were as follows: 1. Robin Hood: The Movie(1991) – featuring edited material from episodes: 1,2,3,5,8 & 27. Notably, Will Scatlock who dies at the end of episode 2 in the series (thereby transferring the outlaw leadership to Robin Hood), is not killed until the end of the 90 min feature. 2. Robin Hood's Greatest Adventures(1991) 3. Robin Hood: Quest for the Crown(1991)
In 1960, Sydney Cole and Richard Greene produced the feature film Sword of Sherwood Forest for Hammer Film Productions (in association with Yeoman Films), directed by Terence Fisher, written by Alan Hackney, director of photography was Ken Hodges, and the film editor was Lee Doig, all TV series alumni. Richard Greene starred as Robin Hood with Peter Cushing as The Sheriff of Nottingham, blonde haired Sarah Branch played Maid Marian with Nigel Green as Little John, Jack Gwillim as Archbishop Hubert Walter, and Richard Pasco as Edward, Earl of Newark. Oliver Reedalso had a small role. It was filmed in colour and in a widescreen process referred to as 'Megascope' on the opening titles. The film itself was a retelling of how Robin first met Marion.
Dec 07, 2015 · Larry Cotton (Andrew Robinson) and his second wife Julia (Clare Higgins) have moved to London from the USA, returning to Larry’s childhood home which has sat abandoned since the death of Larry’s parents, because Larry’s brother Frank (Sean Chapman), who jointly owns it, always refused to sell the place.
Sep 22, 2021 · In 1993, it wasn’t immediately clear whether realtime-rendered 3D or prerendered 3D or FMV or some hybrid form would be the graphical wave of the future; in 1997, realtime-rendered 3D was beginning to emerge as the clear frontrunner, and it was becoming apparent that FMV was an expensive boondoggle eating up time and resources that could have ...