A gendarmerie (/ ʒ ɒ n ˈ d ɑːr m ər i, ʒ ɒ̃-/) is a military force with law enforcement duties among the civilian population. The term gendarme (English: / ˈ ʒ ɒ n d ɑːr m /) is derived from the medieval French expression gens d'armes, which translates to "armed people".
The National Gendarmerie (French: Gendarmerie nationale [ʒɑ̃daʁməʁi nasjɔnal]) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police.It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior—with additional duties to the Ministry of Defense.
- Ranks and insignia
The Jandarmeria Română is a military police force of Romania tasked with high-risk and specialized law enforcement duties. It is one of the two main police forces in Romania, both having jurisdiction over the civilian population. The gendarmerie is subordinated Ministry of Administration and Interior and does not have responsibility for policing the Romanian Armed Forces. This duty lies with the Military Police subordinated to the Romanian Land Forces.
The first Gendarmerie corps was created on 3 April 1850 in Moldavia by Prince Grigore Alexandru Ghica. After the Union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859 under Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the Gendarmerie was subordinated to the Ministry of War as a separate armed force. During the
In 1893, the Rural Gendarmerie was established by the Law for the Organization of the Rural Gendarmerie as a military corps under the authority of the Ministry of Justice for policing the countryside and under the authority of Ministry of War for military police functions. The bi
The Romanian Gendarmerie was engaged during the Second Balkan War and the First World War with military police duties, policing the front, guarding important installations and organizing the evacuation during the 1916 retreat. The corps also saw actual combat during the 1917 camp
Its duties include: 1. Maintaining and restoring the public order: Crowd and riot control Policing the mountainous areas and the Black Sea Coast resorts Counter-terrorism activities 2. Pursuing and apprehending fugitives and deserters 3. Security of sensitive and vital installations, such as: Public institutions, ministries and courts Embassies and consulates International airports National museums Nuclear power plants 4. Security and protection of the secret mail all over the Romanian territory
The General Inspectorate of the Gendarmerie is the central structure of the Romanian Gendarmerie under the command of a General Inspector appointed by the Minister of Interior. The General Inspector is assisted by 3 deputies. The first deputy is the chief of the Gendarmerie Staff
The Romanian Gendarmerie is divided in 41 territorial inspectorates, corresponding to each county, and the General Directorate of the Gendarmerie in Bucharest. Additionally, eight Gendarmerie Mobile Groups operate on a territorial basis, with headquarters in Bacău, Brașov ...
The "Vlad Țepeș" Special Intervention Brigade has national jurisdiction. It handles special and high-risk situations, such as heavy rioting, hostage rescue and counter-terrorist operations.
During the period up to 1915 the Romanian Gendarmerie wore a distinctive dress comprising a shako with white plume, dark blue tunic with red facings, white trefoil epaulettes and aiguillettes plus light blue trousers with red stripes. Mounted units of the Gendarmerie wore a silver helmet with spike and white plume, a similar tunic to the foot branch but with yellow epaulettes and aiguillettes, white breeches and high boots.
Unlike the Romanian Police, the Gendarmerie is a military body, and uses the same ranking system as the Romanian Land Forces.
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A separate force known as the Egyptian Gendarmerie was created in 1882 and continued in existence until the overthrow of the monarchy in 1952. In 2014 it was announced that the Gendarmerie were to be recreated, initially for policing and security duties in certain districts of Cairo. France: National Gendarmerie: Gendarmerie Nationale: Maritime ...Country or territoryEnglish nameNative-language nameNotesBosnia and Herzegovina (Republika Srpska)Жандармерија Републике Српске Žandarmerija Republike SrpskeBosnia and Herzegovina has two major entity-level ministries of interior, so only Republika Srpska has gendarmerie type unit formed on September 2019.Polícia MilitarBrazilian states have their own gendarmeries and federal government has a National Public Security Force, a department formed with personal from states' Military Police Forces, Military Firefighters Corps and Civil Police.Police militaire des Forces canadiennesSworn as peace officers who can arrest civilians on military bases.Carabineros de ChileThe police of streets, roads and borders.
- The Gendarmerie Museum
The Gendarmerie General Command is a service branch of the Turkish Ministry of Interior responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces, as well as assuring internal security along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. The Commander of the Gendarmerie reports to the Minister of the Interior. The Gendarmerie has its roots in the Ottoman Empire military law enforcement organization "S
After the abolition of the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire in 1826, military organizations called Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Mansûre, Asâkir-i Muntazâma-i Hâssa, and, in 1834, Asâkir-i Redîfe were established for security and public order in Anatolia and in some ...
The Gendarmerie organization achieved its current legal status on June 10, 1930. In 1939, the Gendarmerie organization was restructured, having three groups: Fixed Gendarmerie Units, Mobile Gendarmerie Units, and Gendarmerie Training Units and Schools. In 1956, the Gendarmerie Ge
The duties of the gendarmerie according to the Law No. 2803 on the Organization, Duties and Powers of the Gendarmerie; It is categorized under four main titles as judicial, military, civil and other duties.
Gendarmerie General Command Headquarters 1. Gendarmerie Security Corps Command 23. Gendarmerie Border Division 21. Gendarmerie Border Brigade 1. Gendarmerie Commando Brigade 2. Gendarmerie Commando Brigade 2. Gendarmerie Training Command 1. Gendarmerie Training Battalion Command
Gendarmerie officer with an MP5 at Topkapı Palace in Istanbul
The Gendarmerie Museum is established in order to reflect the developments in periodical order beginning with the foundation of the Gendarmerie organization; to exhibit its activities, heroic deeds, services in the history; to protect all kinds of military cultural assets related to the Gendarmerie by collecting them and to transfer them to the future generations. The Gendarmerie Museum in the Beytepe Lieutenant General İsmail SELEN Quarters in Ankara and is open to public.
- Katangese secession (1960–1963)
- Angola and the Congo (1963–1967)
- Later history (1967-present)
The Katangese Gendarmerie, officially the Katangese Armed Forces, was the paramilitary force of the unrecognized State of Katanga in Central Africa from 1960 to 1963. The forces were formed upon the secession of Katanga from the Republic of the Congo with help from Belgian soldiers and former officers of the Force Publique. Belgian troops also provided much of the early training for the Gendarmerie, which was mainly composed of Katangese but largely led by Belgians and later European mercenaries
The Belgian Congo was established from the Congo Free State in 1908. Belgium held control of the colony until it gained independence as the Republic of the Congo on June 30, 1960. Though the nation had elected officials including Joseph Kasa-Vubu as president, Patrice Lumumba as
In order to develop a stronger fighting force, Katanga disarmed all Force Publique troops based in Camp Massart except for 350 Katangese soldiers. The first iteration of the army was planned to consist of 1,500 men, all Katangese. The first volunteers were primarily Lunda people
The Gendarmerie first saw action in Northern Katanga in efforts to suppress the Association Générale des Baluba du Katanga, a political party which represented the Luba people of northern Katanga and rebelled against Katangese authority. Some prominent BALUBAKAT ...
During the dissolution of the Lumumba Government, the Belgian government determined that their interests could be protected through negotiations with the Congolese government and began to gradually withdraw from Katanga. The state still had support from several Belgian politician
Statement by Secretary-General Thant before the UN Security Council on 31 December concerning ONUC's actions in Katanga On 24 December 1962, Katangese forces in Élisabethville attacked ONUC troops with small arms fire and shot down an unarmed ONUC helicopter. Firing ...
After the defeat of the State of Katanga, plans to disarm or integrate the gendarmes were made. On 8 February 1963, General Muké and several of his officers pledged their allegiance to President Kasa-Vubu. However, of the estimated 14,000–17,000 gendarmes, only 3,500 ...
By mid-1966 the Katangese forces in the Congo were still serving in the ANC in standalone units. About 1,000 mercenaries and 3,000 former gendarmes were deployed in South Kivu and Kisangani, tasked with suppressing the remaining Simba rebels. They were militarily effective, but r
The straggling gendarmes who returned to Angola after the defeats in the Congo initially maintained hope of being able to fight for their return within a few years. Their designs were nevertheless disrupted by Tshombe's detention, the departure of many of their mercenary commanders, and the increasing strength of Mobutu. The gendarmes were instead deployed by the Portuguese government in the Eastern Military Zone where they were led by Nathaniel Mbumba and fought the Movimento Popular de Liberta
- 14,000–17,000 (1963)
- 21 January 1963
- Jean-Marie Crèvecoeur (1st), Norbert Muké, Ferdinand Tshipola
- 11 July 1960
The gendarmerie also provides mountain rescue capability. In conflict zones, the gendarmerie's function is the restoration of law and order as a provost unit.  In addition to the police, the gendarmerie has military equipments such as armored transport .
Contrary to the Departmental Gendarmerie, whose jurisdiction is limited to specific parts of the territory, the Mobile Gendarmerie can operate anywhere in France and even abroad as the Gendarmerie is a component of the French Armed Forces. Although the term "mobile" has been used at different times in the 19th century, the modern Mobile ...
International co-operation. Since its foundation, the Royal Gendarmerie has laid efficient mutual co-operation basis with the different brotherhood organisations and also joined in the FIEP organization in 1999 which provides the framework the improvement of mutual relations and the maintenance of security in the region.
La gendarmerie est la force armée, chargée de missions de police parmi les populations civiles d'un pays. En outre, elle exerce des fonctions de prévôté au sein des armées sur les théâtres d'opérations extérieurs.