Geographic coordinate conversion has applications in cartography, surveying, navigation and geographic information systems. In geodesy, geographic coordinate conversion is defined as translation among different coordinate formats or map projections all referenced to the same geodetic datum. 
The distinction must be made between a singular geographic information system, which is a single installation of software and data for a particular use, along with associated hardware, staff, and institutions (e.g., the GIS for a particular city government); and GIS software, a general-purpose application program that is intended to be used in many individual geographic information systems in ...
The first language to make a clean distinction between structure and presentation was Scribe, developed by Brian Reid and described in his doctoral thesis in 1980. Scribe was revolutionary in a number of ways, not least that it introduced the idea of styles separated from the marked-up document, and of a grammar controlling the usage of descriptive elements.
The Geography Markup Language (GML) is an XML encoding in compliance with ISO 19118 for the transport and storage of geographic information modelled according to the conceptual modelling framework used in the ISO 19100-series and including both the spatial and nonspatial properties of geographic features.
CouchDB a document-based database system that can be spatially enabled by a plugin called Geocouch; Elasticsearch is a document-based database system that supports two types of geo data: geo_point fields which support lat/lon pairs, and geo_shape fields, which support points, lines, circles, polygons, multi-polygons, etc.
The empty string should not be confused with the empty language ∅, which is a formal language (i.e. a set of strings) that contains no strings, not even the empty string. The empty string has several properties: |ε| = 0. Its string length is zero. ε ⋅ s = s ⋅ ε = s. The empty string is the identity element of the concatenation operation.
Many maps are drawn to a scale expressed as a ratio measurement on the map corresponds to 10,000 of that same unit on the ground. The scale statement can be accurate when the region mapped is small enough for the curvature of the Earth to be neglected, such as a city map. Mapping larger regions, where the curvature cannot be ignored, requires projections to map from the curved surface of the ...