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  1. The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck.

    German colonial empire - Wikipedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_colonial_empire
  2. German colonial empire - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › German_colonial_empire

    The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck.

  3. German colonial empire - New World Encyclopedia

    www.newworldencyclopedia.org › entry › German
    • Colonial Polity
    • End of The Colonial Empire
    • Extent of The Empire
    • Welser Colonies
    • Brandenburger-Prussian Colonies
    • German Imperial Colonies
    • Other
    • Legacy
    • References

    Germany did not attempt to re-mold its colonial subjects in the German image in the way that the French and the British tried to mold their subjects in their image. While the French and the English instituted policies that spread their languages and culture, Germany restricted use of German to a small number of elite colonial subjects. Germany did not actually profit from colonialism, since the expenses incurred in administration were greater than revenues generated. Colonies were regarded as overspill for German settlers, rather than as territories to be developed and eventually granted autonomy, or independence. In fact, only small numbers of Germans relocated to the colonies. Rebellions when they took place were brutally crushed. The most well-known incident of rebellion took place in German South West Africa (now Namibia), where, when the Herero people rose in rebellion (known as the Maji-Maji rebellion) in 1904, they were crushed by German troops; tens of thousands of natives d...

    Germany's defeat in World War Iresulted in the Allied Powers dissolving and re-assigning the empire, mainly at and its subsequent peace at the Paris Peace Conference (1919). In the treaties Japan gained the Carolines and Marianas, France gained Cameroons, Belgium gained small parts of German East Africa, and the United Kingdom gained the remainder, as well as German New Guinea, Namibia, and Samoa. Togoland was divided between France and Britain. Most of these territories acquired by the British were attached to its various Commonwealth realms overseas and were transferred to them upon their independence. Namibia was granted to South Africa as a League of Nations mandate. Western Samoa was run as a class C League of Nations mandate by New Zealand and Rabaul along the same lines by Australia. This placing of responsibility on white-settler dominions was at the time perceived to be the cheapest option for the British government, although it did have the bizarre result of British coloni...

    This is a list of former German Empire colonies and protectorates (German: Schutzgebiete), the German colonial empire.

    America

    1. Little Venice (Klein Venedig)(see German colonization of the Americas)

    Africa

    1. Groß Friedrichsburg (in Ghana), 1683–1718 2. Arguin (in Mauretania), 1685–1721 3. Whydah, in present Togo ca. 1700 (this Brandenburg 'colony' was just a minor point of support, a few dwellings at a site where British and Dutch had theirs too)

    America

    1. Saint Thomas (Caribbean, now in the United States Virgin Islands), brandenburg Lease territory in the Danish West Indies; 1685–1720 2. Island of Crabs/Krabbeninsel(Caribbean, now in USA), brandenburgische Annexion in the Danish West Indies; 1689–1693 3. Tertholen (Caribbean sea; 1696)

    Africa

    1. German East Africa - (Deutsch-Ostafrika) 1.1. Tanganyika; after World War I a British League of Nations mandate, which in 1962 became independent and in 1964 joined with former British protectorate of the sultanate of Zanzibar to form present-day Tanzania 1.2. Ruanda-Urundi: 1885 – 1917 1.2.1. Rwanda(present-day) 1.2.2. Burundi(present-day) 1.3. Wituland 1885 – 1890, since in Kenya 1.4. Kionga Triangle, since 1920 (earlier occupied) in Portuguese Mozambique 2. German South West Africa - (D...

    Pacific

    1. German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea, today Papua-New-Guinea; 1884 – 1914) 1.1. Kaiser-Wilhelmsland 1.2. Bismarck Archipelago (Bismarck-Archipel) 1.3. German Solomon Islands or Northern Solomon Islands (Salomonen or Nördliche Salomon-Inseln, 1885–1899) 1.4. Bougainville (Bougainville-Insel, 1888–1919) 1.5. Nauru(1888–1919) 1.6. German Marshall Islands (Marshallinseln; 1885–1919) 1.7. Mariana Islands (Marianen, 1899–1919) 1.8. Caroline Islands (Karolinen, 1899 – 1919) 1.8.1. Federated State...

    China

    1. Jiaozhou Bay (1898-1914)

    Hanauish Indies (de:Hanauisch Indien)
    Southern Brazil
    Ernst Thälmann Island
    New Swabia was a part of Antarctica, claimed by Nazi Germany (19 January 1939 - 25 May 1945), but not effectively colonized; the claim was completely abandoned afterward

    The German colonial empire was relatively short-lived and has been overshadowed in the German consciousness by two world wars, followed by partition, the Cold War and more recently by re-unification. In 2005, when the centenary of the mass killings that took place in Namibia, Germans were reminded of their colonial legacy and of parallels which have been made between aspects of that legacy and the Third Reich. Dr Henning Melber comments that: On the other hand, the way in which Germany lost her colonial empire meant that Germany did not become engaged in the type of violent anti-independence wars that took place under the imperial watch of some other European colonial powers. Unlike the imperial legacies of other European countries, especially Spain, France and Great Britain, the German empire did not create a large German speaking community or enduring cultural links. One consequence is that "there are apparently no post-colonial texts in German." Germany preferred to keep the numb...

    Boahen, A. Adu (ed.). 1985. Africa Under Colonial Domination, 1880-1935, Abridged version. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520067028
    Friedrichsmeyer, Sara, Sara Lennox, and Susanne Zantop. 1998. The imperialist imagination: German colonialism and its legacy. Social history, popular culture, and politics in Germany. Ann Arbor, MI...
    Smith, Woodruff D. 1974. "The Ideology of German Colonialism, 1840–1906." Journal of Modern History. 46:641–663
    ———. 1978. The German colonial empire. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807813225
  4. German Colonial Empire | Encyclopedia.com

    www.encyclopedia.com › german-colonial-empire
    • Germany's African Colonies
    • Germany's Pacific Colonies
    • Postwar Settlement
    • Bibliography

    Following the outbreak of hostilities in August 1914, Germany's enemies moved quickly against its colonies. On 6 August, French forces invaded Togoland from French West Africa, and were joined one week later by British forces. After two small engagements, the acting governor Major H. G. von Doering capitulated to the French tirailleurs sénégalaisand the British West African Rifles on 26 August 1914. Although also outnumbered, German forces in nearby Cameroons were initially more successful in resisting the British and French troops; many German soldiers fought on for more than a year in the colony's interior before fleeing in February 1916 to neutral Spanish Guinea. The remaining troops in Cameroons surrendered on 18 February 1916 from inside the Mora mountain fort to a combined British and French force of more than twenty-five thousand troops. Events followed a similar course in German Southwest Africa. After invading in September 1914, the South African troops made little progress...

    In the case of the Germany's Far East colonies, the threat came not from the European powers directly but from their allies and dominions. Long resenting Germany's presence in the South Pacific, New Zealand and Australia immediately set about occupying Germany's colonies according to a prewar arrangement that awarded German Samoa to New Zealand and western New Guinea to Australia. On 29 August 1914, New Zealand forces took control of German Samoa. Australia's conquest of western New Guinea proved more difficult. Although Australia sent its entire fleet and an expeditionary force of more than fifteen hundred troops, unexpectedly strong German resistance convinced Australian commanders to negotiate a treaty of surrender that allowed, among other things, Germans to retain their property and to continue to participate in the colony's administration, though under Australian supervision. In return, Australia assumed control over not only western New Guinea but also the Bismarck Archipelag...

    By the time the diplomats assembled at Versailles in 1919 to negotiate the peace settlement, Germany had lost all of its colonies. The Japanese controlled its Chinese and Micronesian possessions, the British Dominion powers administered the rest of the Far East territories as well as Germany's African holdings, and Belgium had taken possession of part of German East Africa. In an effort to balance the annexationist demands of Great Britain and, more importantly, its Dominions with the wishes of the United States that the postwar settlement prohibit imperialist seizures of territory, diplomats at the Paris peace conference devised the mandate system for the former German and Ottoman colonies. Individual countries that were mandataries of the League of Nations were given the right to govern the colonies with the task of preparing them for eventual independence. Because the territories differed greatly in terms of political, economic, and social levels of development, the diplomats div...

    Gifford, Prosser, and William Rogers Louis, eds. Britain and Germany in Africa: Imperial Rivalry and Colonial Rule. New Haven, Conn., 1967. Hiery, Hermann. The Neglected War: The German South Pacific and the Influence of World War I.Honolulu, 1995. Keylor, William R., ed. The Legacy of the Great War: Peacemaking, 1919.Boston, 1998. Schrecker, John E. Imperialism and Chinese Nationalism: Germany in Shantung.Cambridge, Mass., 1971. Stoecker, Helmuth, ed. German Imperialism in Africa: From the Beginnings until the Second World War.Translated by Bernd Zöllner. London, 1986. Strachan, Hew. The First World War. New York, 2004. Wesseling, H. L. The European Colonial Empires, 1815–1919. Translated by Diane Webb. New York: Longman, 2004. Charles Lansing

  5. German colonial empire | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org › wiki › German_colonial_empire
    • Origins
    • Acquisition of Colonies
    • End of The German Colonial Empire
    • Administration and Colonial Policies
    • Legacy
    • Sources and References
    • Bibliography
    • See Also

    German unification

    Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun". Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. The German states prior to 1870 had retained separate political structures and goals, and German foreign policy up to and including the age of Otto von Bismarckconcentrated on resolving the "German que...

    Scramble for colonies

    Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of having achieved nationhood. Public opinion eventually arrived at an understanding that prestigious African and Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a High Seas Fleet. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde [supporters of colonial acquisitions] and by a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies. Bismarck and many deputies in t...

    The development of German overseas protectorates(with the exception of concession territories) essentially followed three phases.

    Conquest in the First World War

    In the years before the outbreak of the Great War, British colonial officers viewed the Germans as deficient in “colonial aptitude,” but “whose colonial administration was nevertheless superior to those of the other European states.” Anglo-German colonial issues in the decade before 1914 were minor and both empires, the British and German, took conciliatory attitudes. Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey, considered still a moderate in 1911, was willing to “study the map of Africa in a pro-Germa...

    Confiscation

    Germany's overseas empire was dismantled following defeat in World War I. With the concluding Treaty of Versailles, Article 22, German colonies were divided between Belgium, the United Kingdom, and certain British Dominions, France, and Japan with the determination not to see any of them returned to Germany — a guarantee secured by Article 119. 1. In Africa, Britain and France divided German Kamerun (Cameroons) and Togoland. Belgium gained Ruanda-Urundi in northwestern German East Africa, Gre...

    Epilogue

    President Wilson saw the League of Nations as "'residuary trustee' for the [German] colonies" captured and occupied by "rapacious conquerors". The victors retained the German overseas possessions and did so with the belief that Australian, Belgian, British, French, Japanese, New Zealand, Portuguese and South African rule was superior to Germany’s.Several decades later during the collapse of the then existing colonial empires, Africans and Asians cited the same arguments that had been used by...

    Colonial governments

    Bismarck’s successor in 1890, Leo von Caprivi, was willing to maintain the colonial burden of what already existed, but opposed new ventures. Others who followed, especially Bernhard von Bülow, as foreign minister and chancellor, sanctioned the acquisition of the Pacific Ocean colonies and provided substantial treasury assistance to existing protectorates to employ administrators, commercial agents, surveyors, local "peacekeepers" and tax collectors. Kaiser Wilhelm II understood and lamented...

    German colonial population

    The colonies were primarily commercial and plantation regions and did not attract large numbers of German settlers. The majority of German emigrants chose North America as their destination and not the colonies – of 1,085,124 emigrants between 1887 and 1906, 1,007,574 headed to the United States. When the imperial government invited the 22,000 soldiers mobilized to subdue the Hereros to settle in German South-West Africa, and offered financial aid, only 5% accepted. The German colonial popula...

    Medicine and science

    In her African and South Seas colonies Germany established diverse biological and agricultural stations. Staff specialists and the occasional visiting university group conducted soil analyses, developed plant hybrids, experimented with fertilizers, studied vegetable pests and ran courses in agronomy for settlers and natives and performed a host of other tasks.Successful German plantation operators realized the benefits of systematic scientific inquiry and instituted and maintained their own s...

    In recent years scholars have debated the "continuity thesis" that links German colonialist brutalities to the treatment of Jews, Poles and Russians during World War II. Some historians argue that Germany's role in southwestern Africa gave rise to an emphasis on racial superiority at home, which in turn was used by the Nazis. Other scholars, however, are skeptical and challenge the continuity thesis. The limited successes of German colonialism overseas led to a decision to shift the main focus of German expansionism to Central and Eastern Europe, with the Mitteleuropa plan. German colonialism instead turned towards the European continent. While a minority view during the Kaiserzeit, the idea developed into full swing under Erich Ludendorff and his political activity in the Baltic States, Ukraine, and Poland. Subsequently after the defeat of Russia during World War I, Germany acquired vast territories with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and created several administrative regions like Ob...

    Achleitner, Arthur; Johannes Biernatzki (1902). Deutschland und seine Kolonieen; Wanderungen durch das Reich und seine überseeischen Besitzungen, unter Mitwirkung von Arthur Achleitner, Johannes Bi...
    Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (German)
    Boahen, A. Adu, ed. (1985). Africa Under Colonial Domination, 1880–1935. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-06702-8(1990 Abridged edition).
    Crankshaw, Edward (1981). Bismarck. New York: The Viking Press. ISBN 0-14-006344-7.
    Davidson, J. W. (1967). Samoa mo Samoa, the Emergence of the Independent State of Western Samoa. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
    Gann, L., and Peter Duignan. The Rulers of German Africa, 1884–1914(1977) focuses on political and economic history
    List of former German colonies
    German colonization of the Americas
    German East Africa Company
    German New Guinea Company
  6. German colonial empire | Central Victory Wiki | Fandom

    central-victory.wikia.org › German_colonial_empire
    • Origins
    • Acquisition of Colonies
    • End of The German Colonial Empire
    • Administration and Colonial Policies

    German unification

    Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun". Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. The German states prior to 1870 had retained separate political structures and goals, and German foreign policy up to and including the age of Otto von Bismarckconcentrated on resolving the "German que...

    Scramble for colonies

    Many Germans in the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a true indication of having achieved nationhood. Public opinion eventually arrived at an understanding that prestigious African and Pacific colonies went hand-in-hand with dreams of a High Seas Fleet. Both aspirations would become reality, nurtured by a press replete with Kolonialfreunde [supporters of colonial acquisitions] and by a myriad of geographical associations and colonial societies. Bismarck and many deputies in t...

    The development of German overseas protectorates(with the exception of concession territories) essentially followed three phases.

    The German Colonial empire began to break apart in the late 1980's during the German Colonial War 1989-1990 the German Colonial empire fell on 25 December 1990, exactly on Christmas Day, along with the German Empire itself.

    Bismarck’s successor in 1890, Leo von Caprivi, was willing to maintain the colonial burden of what already existed, but opposed new ventures. Others who followed, especially Bernhard von Bülow, as foreign minister and chancellor, sanctioned the acquisition of the Pacific Ocean colonies and provided substantial treasury assistance to existing protectorates to employ administrators, commercial agents, surveyors, local "peacekeepers" and tax collectors. Kaiser Wilhelm II understood and lamented his nation's position as colonial followers rather than leaders. In an interview with Cecil Rhodesin March 1899 he stated the alleged dilemma clearly: "... Germany has begun her colonial enterprise very late, and was, therefore, at the disadvantage of finding all the desirable places already occupied." The German colonists included people like Carl Peterswho brutalized the local population. Nonetheless, Germany did assemble an overseas empire in Africa and the Pacific Ocean in the last two decad...

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  8. In geographical terms, the German colonial empire was focused on Africa, where it acquired its first territories in 1884 and 1885. Germany’s expansion was an integral part of the larger ‘scramble for Africa’ that substituted the ‘informal imperialism’ of control through military influence and economic dominance by that of direct rule.

    • Sebastian Conrad
    • 2011
  9. German Empire | Facts, History, Flag, & Map | Britannica

    www.britannica.com › place › German-Empire

    German Empire, also called Second Reich, historical empire founded on January 18, 1871, in the wake of three short, successful wars by the North German state of Prussia. Within a seven-year span, Denmark, the Habsburg monarchy, and France had been vanquished.

  10. Far from Empire - German Colonial History and its Memorials

    www.thoughtco.com › german-colonial-history-and

    Jul 02, 2019 · Even though Germans were part of the European Colonial Expansion right from the beginning, the engagement of Germany as a formal colonial power started its endeavors rather late. One reason was that the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, before that there was no “Germany” that could, as a nation, colonize anyone.

  11. The German Colonial Empire started at the end of the 19th century which is also known as the era of modern imperialism. Germany was a latecomer when it came ...

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