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  1. German Expressionism (cinema) - Wikipedia › wiki › German_Expressionism

    The German Expressionist movement was initially confined to Germany due to the isolation the country experienced during World War I. In 1916, the government had banned foreign films. The demand from theaters to generate films led to an increase in domestic film production from 24 films in 1914 to 130 films in 1918.

    • 1910s–1930s
    • WWI's traumatic aftermath and the slowly dread-inducing Weimar Republic
  2. Expressionism - Wikipedia › wiki › Expressionism

    Expressionism is a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Northern Europe around the beginning of the 20th century.Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.

  3. Brick Expressionism - Wikipedia › wiki › Brick_Expressionism

    The term Brick Expressionism ( German: Backsteinexpressionismus) describes a specific variant of Expressionist architecture that uses bricks, tiles or clinker bricks as the main visible building material. Buildings in the style were erected mostly in the 1920s, primarily in Germany and the Netherlands, where the style was created.

  4. German Expressionism (cinema) — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › German_Expressionism_(cinema)
    • History
    • Distorted Imagery
    • Interpretation
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Among the first Ex­pres­sion­ist films, The Stu­dent of Prague (1913), The Cab­i­net of Dr. Cali­gari (1920), From Morn to Mid­night (1920), The Golem: How He Came into the World (1920), Des­tiny (1921), Nos­fer­atu (1922), Phan­tom (1922), and Schat­ten(1923) were highly sym­bolic and styl­ized. The Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ist move­ment was ini­tially con­fined to Ger­many due to the iso­la­tion the coun­try ex­pe­ri­enced dur­ing World War I. In 1916, the gov­ern­ment had banned for­eign films. The de­mand from the­aters to gen­er­ate films led to an in­crease in do­mes­tic film pro­duc­tion from 24 films in 1914 to 130 films in 1918. With in­fla­tion also on the rise, Ger­mans were at­tend­ing films more freely be­cause they knew that their money's value was con­stantly diminishing. Be­sides the films' pop­u­lar­ity within Ger­many, by 1922 the in­ter­na­tional au­di­ence had begun to ap­pre­ci­ate Ger­man cin­ema, in part due to a de­creas­ing anti-Ger­man sen­ti­ment fol­low­ing t...

    Many crit­ics see a di­rect tie be­tween cin­ema and ar­chi­tec­ture of the time, stat­ing that the sets and scene art­work of Ex­pres­sion­ist films often re­veal build­ings of sharp an­gles, great heights, and crowded en­vi­ron­ments, such as the fre­quently shown Tower of Babel in Fritz Lang's Me­trop­o­lis. Strong el­e­ments of mon­u­men­tal­ism and Mod­ernism ap­pear through­out the canon of Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ism. An ex­cel­lent ex­am­ple of this is Me­trop­o­lis, as ev­i­denced by the enor­mous power plant and glimpses of the mas­sive yet pris­tine "upper" city. Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ist painters re­jected the nat­u­ral­is­ticde­pic­tion of ob­jec­tive re­al­ity, often por­tray­ing dis­torted fig­ures, build­ings, and land­scapes in a dis­ori­ent­ing man­ner that dis­re­garded the con­ven­tions of per­spec­tive and pro­por­tion. This ap­proach, com­bined with jagged, styl­ized shapes and harsh, un­nat­ural col­ors, were used to con­vey sub­jec­tive emo­tions. A num­ber of ar...

    The two most com­pre­hen­sive stud­ies of Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ist film are Lotte Eis­ner's The Haunted Screen and Siegfried Kra­cauer's From Cali­gari to Hitler. Kra­cauer ex­am­ines Ger­man cin­ema from the Silent/Golden Era to sup­port the (con­tro­ver­sial) con­clu­sion that Ger­man films made prior to Hitler's takeover and the rise of the Third Reich all hint at the in­evitabil­ity of Nazi Ger­many. For Eis­ner, sim­i­larly, Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ist cin­ema is a vi­sual man­i­fes­ta­tion of Ro­man­tic ideals turned to dark and proto-to­tal­i­tar­ian ends. More re­cent Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ist schol­ars ex­am­ine his­tor­i­cal el­e­ments in­flu­enc­ing Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ism, such as the Weimar econ­omy, UFA, Erich Pom­mer, Nordisk, and Hol­ly­wood.

    For ex­am­ples of highly ac­claimed and, in some cases, lit­tle seen film made in the Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ist style, see the: 1. Austrian film director G.W. Pabst's 1930 film Westfront 1918 2. Polish-made 1937 Yiddish-language The Dybbuk (film)and 3. American thriller The Night of the Hunter (film), made in 1955 For more on Ger­man Ex­pres­sion­ism's most sin­gu­larly im­por­tant pro­ducer and di­rec­tor, see Leopold Jess­ner (1878-1945). For more on the pe­riod's most im­por­tant pro­duc­tion com­pany and dis­trib­u­tor, see Uni­ver­sum Film AG, pop­u­larly known as UFA.

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  6. Franz Marc - Wikipedia › wiki › Franz_Marc

    Franz Moritz Wilhelm Marc (8 February 1880 – 4 March 1916) was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of German Expressionism.He was a founding member of Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a journal whose name later became synonymous with the circle of artists collaborating in it.

  7. Expressionism — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI 2 › en › Expressionism
    • Origin of The Term
    • Visual Artists
    • Groups of Painters
    • Representative Paintings
    • in Other Arts
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    While the word ex­pres­sion­ist was used in the mod­ern sense as early as 1850, its ori­gin is some­times traced to paint­ings ex­hib­ited in 1901 in Paris by ob­scure artist Julien-Au­guste Hervé, which he called Ex­pres­sion­ismes. An al­ter­na­tive view is that the term was coined by the Czech art his­to­rian An­tonin Matějček in 1910 as the op­po­site of im­pres­sion­ism: "An Ex­pres­sion­ist wishes, above all, to ex­press him­self... (an Ex­pres­sion­ist re­jects) im­me­di­ate per­cep­tion and builds on more com­plex psy­chicstruc­tures... Im­pres­sions and men­tal im­ages that pass through ... peo­ple's soul as through a fil­ter which rids them of all sub­stan­tial ac­cre­tions to pro­duce their clear essence [...​and] are as­sim­i­lated and con­dense into more gen­eral forms, into types, which he tran­scribes through sim­ple short-hand for­mu­lae and symbols." Im­por­tant pre­cur­sors of Ex­pres­sion­ism were the Ger­man philoso­pher Friedrich Ni­et­zsche (1844–1900), es­pe­c...

    Some of the style's main vi­sual artists of the early 20th cen­tury were: 1. Armenia: Martiros Saryan 2. Australia: Sidney Nolan, Charles Blackman, John Perceval, Albert Tucker, and Joy Hester 3. Austria: Egon Schiele, Oskar Kokoschka, Josef Gassler and Alfred Kubin 4. Belgium: Marcel Caron, Anto Carte, Auguste Mambour, - Flemish Expressionism: Constant Permeke, Gustave De Smet, Frits Van den Berghe, James Ensor, Albert Servaes, Floris Jespers and Gustave Van de Woestijne. 5. Brazil: Anita Malfatti, Cândido Portinari, Di Cavalcanti, Iberê Camargo and Lasar Segall. 6. Denmark: Einer Johansen 7. Estonia: Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt, Kuno Veeber 8. Finland: Tyko Sallinen, Alvar Cawén, and Wäinö Aaltonen. 9. France: Frédéric Fiebig, Georges Rouault, Georges Gimel, Gen Paul, Chaim Soutine, Marie-Thérèse Auffray and Bernard Buffet. 10. Germany: Ernst Barlach, Max Beckmann, Fritz Bleyl, Heinrich Campendonk, Otto Dix, Conrad Felixmüller, George Grosz, Erich Heckel, Carl Hofer, Ernst Ludwig...

    The style orig­i­nated prin­ci­pally in Ger­many and Aus­tria. There were a num­ber of groups of ex­pres­sion­ist painters, in­clud­ing Der Blaue Re­iter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Re­iter (The Blue Rider, named for a paint­ing) was based in Mu­nich and Die Brücke was orig­i­nally based in Dres­den (al­though some mem­bers later re­lo­cated to Berlin). Die Brücke was ac­tive for a longer pe­riod than Der Blaue Re­iter, which was only to­gether for a year (1912). The Ex­pres­sion­ists were in­flu­enced by var­i­ous artists and sources in­clud­ing Ed­vard Munch, Vin­cent van Gogh, and African art. They were also aware of the work being done by the Fauves in Paris, who in­flu­enced Ex­pres­sion­ism's ten­dency to­ward ar­bi­trary colours and jar­ring com­po­si­tions. In re­ac­tion and op­po­si­tion to French Im­pres­sion­ism, which em­pha­sized the ren­der­ing of the vi­sual ap­pear­ance of ob­jects, Ex­pres­sion­ist artists sought to por­tray emo­tions and sub­jec­tive in­ter­pre­ta­ti...

    The Ex­pres­sion­ist move­ment in­cluded other types of cul­ture, in­clud­ing dance, sculp­ture, cin­ema and the­atre.

    Antonín Matějček cited in Gordon, Donald E. (1987). Expressionism: Art and Idea, p. 175. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300033106
    Jonah F. Mitchell (Berlin, 2003). Doctoral thesis Expressionism between Western modernism and Teutonic Sonderweg.Courtesy of the author.
    Friedrich Nietzsche (1872). The Birth of Tragedy Out of The Spirit of Music. Trans. Clifton P. Fadiman. New York: Dover, 1995. ISBN 0-486-28515-4.
    Judith Bookbinder, Boston modern: figurative expressionism as alternative modernism, (Durham, N.H.: University of New Hampshire Press; Hanover: University Press of New England, ©2005.) ISBN 1-58465...
  8. Neo-expressionism - Wikipedia › wiki › Neo-expressionism
    • Critical Reception
    • Neo-Expressionist Artists Around The World
    • See Also

    Neo-expressionism dominated the art market until the mid-1980s. The style emerged internationally and was viewed by many critics, such as Achille Bonito Oliva and Donald Kuspit, as a revival of traditional themes of self-expression in European art after decades of American dominance. The social and economic value of the movement was hotly debated. From the point of view of the history of Modern Art, art critic Robert Hughes dismissed Neo-Expressionist painting as retrograde, as a failure of radical imagination, and as a lamentable capitulation to the art market. Critics such as Benjamin Buchloh, Hal Foster, Craig Owens, and Mira Schor were highly critical of its relation to the marketability of painting on the rapidly expanding art market, celebrity, the backlash against feminism, anti-intellectualism, and a return to mythic subjects and individualist methods they deemed outmoded. Women were notoriously marginalized in the movement, and painters such as Elizabeth Murray and Maria La...


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  9. Käthe Kollwitz - Wikipedia › wiki › Käthe_Kollwitz

    Käthe Kollwitz (German pronunciation: [kɛːtə kɔlvɪt͡s]; born as Schmidt; 8 July 1867 – 22 April 1945) was a German artist who worked with painting, printmaking (including etching, lithography and woodcuts) and sculpture.

  10. German_Expressionism : definition of German_Expressionism and ... › German_Expressionism › en-en
    • 1920s–1930s
    • Interpretation
    • Influence and Legacy
    • Cinema and Architecture
    • External Links

    Among the first Expressionist films, The Student of Prague[1] (1913), The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920), The Golem: How He Came Into the World[1] (1920), Destiny (1921), Nosferatu[1] (1922), Phantom (1922), Schatten (1923), and The Last Laugh(1924), were highly symbolic and stylized. The German Expressionist movement was largely confined to Germany due to the isolation the country experienced during World War I. In 1916, the government had banned more foreign films in the nation. The demand from theaters to generate films led film production to rise from 25 films (1914) to 130 films (1918). With inflation literally on the rise, Germans were attending films more freely because they knew that their money's worth was constantly diminishing.[2] Besides the films' popularity within Germany, by 1922 the international audience had begun to appreciate German cinema, in part due to a decreasing anti-German sentiment following the end of World War I. By the time the 1916 ban on imports was l...

    Two works about the era are Lotte Eisner's The Haunted Screen and Sigfried Kracauer's From Caligari to Hitler.[citation needed] . Kracauer examines German cinema from the Silent/Golden Era and eventually concludes that German films made prior to Hitler's takeover and the rise of the Third Reich all hint at the inevitability of Nazi Germany. For Eisner, German Expressionist cinema is a visual manifestation of Romantic ideals. She closely examines staging, cinematography, acting, scenarios, and other cinematic elements in films by Pabst, Lubitsch, Lang (her obvious favorite), Riefenstahl, Harbou, and Murnau. More recent German Expressionist scholars examine historical elements of German Expressionism, such as inflation/economics, UFA, Erich Pommer, Nordisk, and Hollywood.[citation needed]

    German silent cinema was arguably far ahead of cinema in Hollywood.[6]As well as the direct influence of film makers who moved from Germany to Hollywood, developments in style and technique which were developed through Expressionism in Germany impressed contemporary film makers from elsewhere and were incorporated into their work and so into the body of international cinema from the 1930s onward. A good example of this process can be found in the career of the British director Alfred Hitchcock. In 1924, Hitchcock was sent by his film company Gainsborough Pictures to work as an assistant director and art director at the UFA Babelsberg Studios in Berlin on the film The Blackguard.[7] An immediate effect of the working environment there can be seen in his expressionistic set designs for The Blackguard. The influence can also be seen throughout the rest of Hitchcock's career. In his third film, The Lodger, Expressionism's influence extends to set designs, lighting techniques, and trick...

    Many critics see a direct tie between cinema and architecture of the time, stating that the sets and scene artwork of expressionist films often reveal buildings of sharp angles, great heights, and crowded environments, such as the frequently shown Tower of Babel in Fritz Lang’s Metropolis.[citation needed] Strong elements of monumentalism and modernism appear throughout the canon of German expressionism. An excellent example on this is Metropolis, as evidenced by the enormous power plant and glimpses of the massive yet pristine 'upper' city. Expressionist paintings avoided the use of subtle shadings and colors. They often used large shapes of bright, unrealistic colors with dark,and they were often cartoon-like. Buildings might sag or lean, showing the ground tilted up steeply as a symbol of defiance of tradition.[11] German expressionist films produced in the Weimar Republicimmediately following the First World War not only encapsulate the sociopolitical contexts in which they were...

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