In Nazi Germany, Gottgläubig (literally "believing in God") was a Nazi religious term for a form of non-denominationalism practised by those Germans who had officially left Christian churches but professed faith in some higher power or divine creator. Such people were called Gottgläubige, and the term for the overall movement was ...
- Himmler and The SS
- Criticism from Catholics
- See Also
People who identified as gottgläubig could hold a wide range of religious beliefs, including non-clerical Christianity, Germanic neopaganism, a generic non-Christian theism, deism, and pantheism. Strictly speaking, Gottgläubigenwere not even required to terminate their church membership, but strongly encouraged to. By the decree of the Reich Ministry of the Interior of 26 November 1936, this religious descriptor was officially recognised on government records. The census of 17 May 1939 was the first time that German citizens were able to officially register as gottgläubig. Out of 79.4 million Germans, 2.7 million people (3.5%) claimed to be gottgläubig, compared to 94.5% who either belonged to the Protestant or Roman Catholic churches, 300,000 Jews (0.4%), 86,000 adherents of other religions (including Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, neopagans and other religious sects and movements, 0.1%), and 1.2 million (1.5%) who had no faith (glaubenslos). Paradoxically, Germans living in urban are...
Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, himself a former Roman Catholic, was one of the main promoters of the gottgläubig movement. He was hostile towards Christianity, its values, the churches and their clergy. However, Himmler declared: "As National Socialists, we believe in a Godly worldview." He insisted on the existence of a creator-God, who favoured and guided the Third Reich and the German nation, as he announced to the SS: "We believe in a God Almighty who stands above us; he has created the earth, the Fatherland, and the Volk, and he has sent us the Führer. Any human being who does not believe in God should be considered arrogant, megalomaniacal, and stupid and thus not suited for the SS." He did not allow atheistsinto the SS, arguing that their "refusal to acknowledge higher powers" would be a "potential source of indiscipline". Himmler was not particularly concerned by the question how to label this deity; God Almighty, the Ancient One, Destiny, "Waralda", Nature etc. were all...
The Catholic Church criticized the term. So in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge by Pope Pius XI from 1937 criticized the use of language in Nazi Germany. In the first main part of the encyclical, Pius XI turns against the use of the term “believing in God". The Pope expresses appreciative admiration for those who fulfilled their Christian duty against an aggressive neo-paganism that was often favored by influential parties. He opposes the National Socialist racial doctrine:
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اسلامگرایی که با نام اسلام سیاسی نیز شناخته میشود، نوعی ایدئولوژی است که «تعالیم، عقاید و ارزشهای یک اسلام خاص را به عنوان بنیاد یک ساختار سیاسی که حامیان آن ایدئولوژی آن را دولت اسلامی میخوانند» به کار میبندد.
The Albanian understanding of secularism has strong influences from the French " Laïcité ". Currently Albania is a secular parliamentary republic, in which the state guarantees freedom of belief. The constitution recognizes the equality of religious communities and the state is neutral in the questions of faith.