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  1. Granada - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

    es.wikipedia.org › wiki › Granada

    Granada es una ciudad y municipio español, capital de la provincia homónima, en la comunidad autónoma de Andalucía.Está situada en la parte central de la comarca de la Vega de Granada, a una altitud de 680 m s. n. m., en una amplia depresión intrabética formada por el río Genil y por el piedemonte del macizo más alto de la península ibérica, Sierra Nevada, que condiciona su clima.

  2. Granada - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Granada
    • History
    • Geography
    • Heritage and Monuments
    • Politics and Administration
    • Districts
    • Gastronomy
    • Leisure and Entertainment
    • Social Welfare
    • Notable People
    • Transport

    Pre-Umayyad history

    The region surrounding what today is Granada has been populated since at least 5500 BC and experienced Roman and Visigothic influences. The most ancient ruins found in the city belong to an Iberian oppidum called Ilturir, in the region known as Bastetania. This oppidum eventually changed its name to Iliberri, and after the Roman conquest of Iberia, to Municipium Florentinum Iliberitanum.

    Founding and early history

    The Umayyad conquest of Hispania, starting in AD 711, brought large parts of the Iberian Peninsula under Moorish control and established al-Andalus. Granada's historical name in the Arabic language was غرناطة (Ġarnāṭah). The word Gárnata (or Karnatah) possibly means "hill of strangers". Because the city was situated on a low plain and, as a result, difficult to protect from attacks, the ruler decided to transfer his residence to the higher situated area of Gárnata. According to Arabic sources...

    Nasrid dynasty—Emirate of Granada

    In 1228, with the departure of the Almohad prince Idris al-Ma'mun, who left Iberia to take the Almohad leadership, the ambitious Ibn al-Ahmar established the last and longest reigning Muslim dynasty in the Iberian peninsula, the Nasrids. With the Reconquista in full swing after the conquest of Córdoba in 1236, the Nasrids aligned themselves with Fernando III of Castile, officially becoming the Emirate of Granada in 1238. Most historians agree that Granada became a tributary state to the Kingd...

    Location

    The city of Granada sits on the Vega de Granada, one of the depressions or plains located within the Baetic mountain ranges, continued to the west by those of Archidona and Antequera and to the East by those of Guadix, Bazaand Huéscar. The fertile soil of the Vega, apt for agriculture, is irrigated by the water streams originated in Sierra Nevada, as well as minor secondary ranges, all drained by the catchment basin of the Genil River, that cuts across the city centre following an east to wes...

    Climate

    Granada has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) close to a cold semi-arid climate (BSk) Summers are hot and dry with daily temperatures averaging 34 °C (93 °F) in the hottest month (July); however, temperatures reaching over 40 °C (104 °F) are not uncommon in the summer months. Winters are cool and damp, with most of the rainfall concentrated from November through to January. The coldest month is January with daytime temperatures hovering at 13 °C (55 °F) and dropping to around 1 °C (34...

    The greatest artistic wealth of Granada is its Spanish-Islamic art – in particular, the compound of the Alhambra and the Generalife. The Generalife is a pleasure palace with attached romantic gardens, remarkable both for its location and layout, as well as for the diversity of its flowers, plants and fountains. The Alhambra is the architectural culmination of the works of Nasrid art that were undertaken in the 13th and 14th centuries, with most of the Alhambra having been built at the time of Yusuf I and Mohammed V, between 1333 and 1354.

    Metropolitan area of Granada

    Granada's metropolitan area consists of about fifty municipalities and the capital. Although it is not formally constituted as a political and administrative body, there are several public services that are combined. The arrival of many inhabitants of the capital and other towns in the province, influences a large population growth. Despite the fact that the capital loses inhabitants, who move to neighboring towns. The main causes of the exodus towards the towns of the metropolitan area are,...

    Capital of Granada Province

    The city of Granada is the capital of the province of the same name, thus all administrative entities of provincial scope dependent on the regional government and the state are located there. There is a provincial delegation from each of the governmental departments to the Junta de Andalucía, coordinated by a government delegate under the Ministry of the Interior. The national government of Spain has a sub-delegationin Granada, subordinate to the government delegate in the autonomous community.

    Judicial administration

    The headquarters of the Superior Court of Justice of Andalusia, Ceuta and Melilla is in Granada, located in Plaza Nueva, in the building of the historic Royal Chancery, as well as the Superior Prosecutor's Office of Andalusia, located in the building of the Bank of Spain. It has a Provincial Court, located in Corteza del Carmen Street, and is also head of the Judicial Party No. 3 of the province, whose demarcation includes the city and 49 towns, some of them very populated, in the metropolita...

    Realejo

    Realejo was the Jewish district in the time of the Nasrid Granada.[citation needed] (The centuries since the Jewish population were so important that Granada was known in Al-Andalus under the name of "Granada of the Jews", Arabic: غرناطة اليهود‎ Gharnāṭah al-Yahūd.) It is today a district made up of many Granadinian villas, with gardens opening onto the streets, called Los Cármenes.

    Cartuja

    This district contains the Carthusian monastery of the same name: Cartuja. This is an old monastery started in a late Gothic style with Baroque exuberant interior decorations. In this district also, many buildings were created with the extension of the University of Granada.

    Bib-Rambla

    The toponym derives from a gate (Bab al-Ramla, or the Gate of the Ears) that was built when Granada was controlled by the Nasrid dynasty. Nowadays, Bib-Rambla is a high point for gastronomy, especially in its terraces of restaurants, open on beautiful days. The Arab bazaar, the Alcaicería, is made up of several narrow streets, which start from this place and continue as far as the cathedral

    The gastronomy of Granada is part of the Arabic-Andalusian cuisine tradition, with a strong Arab and Jewish heritage, which is reflected in its condiments and spices, such as cumin, coriander, nutmeg, cinnamon, raisins, almonds or honey. The writer Miguel Alcobendas, author of the traditional cuisine of Granada, says that it has its origin in living together, from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century (when Granada surrendered to the Catholic Kings), of Muslims, Jews and Christians in the Nasrid Kingdom from Granada. Subsequently there was a miscegenation with the kitchen of the Christians, in which the pork acquired an importance in the kitchen of Granada more than in the rest of Spain, since its consumption allowed its eaters to demonstrate a certain distance from the persecuted religions, since both Muslims and Jews have it banned. The climatic differences of the different regions of the province, from the coast to the peaks of the Sierra Nevadapropitiates a great variety of ra...

    In Granada there is a wide program of leisure and entertainment, which covers a large number of fields, available to both visitors and citizens themselves. Of the leisure activities carried out, the following can be highlighted: 1. The zambras of Sacromonte. Old bridal parties held by the gypsies of the city, and that disappeared for years before their current vindication. They develop in the caves of the Sacromonte neighborhood and have a unique character in the world of flamenco. There are also more classic flamenco shows in the Albaicín. These flamenco shows, usually linked to restaurants, are one of the city's cultural attractions. 2. Festivals. Granada has a very complete range of events: International Music and Dance Festival, International Jazz Festival, Granada Festival South Cinemas and International Tango Festival, among others. 3. Concerts. Throughout the year there is a stable program of concerts in the Manuel de Falla Auditorium and theater and opera performances in the...

    Health

    Its public health system is the exclusive competence of the autonomous community, which provides two types of attention: primary, which constitutes the first level of access to the system; and the specialized one. Health centers and offices constitute the offer of primary care, differing from each other in the level of care they provide.

    Construction of a light rail network, the Granada metro, began in 2007, but was greatly delayed by the Spanish economic crisis. Service finally started on 21 September 2017. The single line crosses Granada and covers the towns of Albolote, Maracena and Armilla. Other transportation options in the city of Granada are trains, taxis or buses.

    • 88.02 km² (33.98 sq mi)
    • Spain
    • 18001–18019
    • Granada
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  4. Grenade (Espagne) — Wikipédia

    fr.wikipedia.org › wiki › Grenade_(Espagne)
    • Géographie
    • Toponymie
    • Blason et Symboles
    • Histoire
    • Politique et Administration
    • Principaux Quartiers
    • Population et Société
    • Économie
    • Culture Locale et Patrimoine
    • Voir aussi

    Localisation

    Grenade se situe dans la partie sud-est de l'Andalousie, la région qui englobe le sud de la péninsule Ibérique. La ville se trouve à 434 km au sud-est de Madrid, la capitale du pays. Elle forme l'une des principales villes de l'est de l'Andalousie, située à 261 km à l'est de Séville et à 162 km au sud-est de Cordoue. Grenade se trouve en outre à 162 km au nord-ouest d'Almeria et à 131 km au nord-est de Malaga, deux villes portuaires donnant sur la mer Méditerranée[1].

    Topographie

    Plusieurs collines forment le site de la ville de Grenade. Certains des principaux quartiers de la ville sont installés sur ces collines : c'est le cas de l'Alhambra, de l'Albaicín et du Sacromonte (étymologiquement le « mont sacré »).

    Hydrographie

    Deux rivières traversent la ville à l'air libre : le Genil, un affluent du fleuve Guadalquivir, et le Darro, rivière affluente du Genil. Le Genil traverse la ville dans sa partie sud ; son courant court d'est en ouest. Le lit du Darros'est creusé entre la colline de l'Alhambra et celle de l'Albaicín.

    Dans l'Antiquité, à l'époque ibère, la ville se nomme Granata. Sous la conquête romaine, elle est renommée Ilibéris ou Florentia. Au Moyen âge, sous les Wisigoths, elle devient Elvira. Ce nom se retrouve dans la Calle de Elvira et la Puerta de Elvira, qui correspondent au tracé antique de la cité. Sous la dynastie des Zirides, elle devient en arabe Garnat Al-Yahud (اليهود). Lorsque les rois catholiques conquièrent la ville, le nom arabe, conservé et déformé, donne Granada, mot assimilé lui-même au nom du fruit homonyme, la grenade.

    Les symboles de la ville de Grenade ont été officialisés par la Résolution du 10 février 2009 prise par la Direction générale de l'Administration locale, qui concerne le drapeau et le blason de la ville[7]. Le drapeau de la ville de Grenade est formé de deux bandes verticales d'égale largeur : la première, du côté de la hampe, est de couleur rouge cramoisi, et la seconde est de couleur verte. Au centre, en superposition, se trouve le blason de la ville[7]. L'écu de Grenade date de l'époque des Rois catholiques qui l'ont fait élaborer après avoir conquis la ville en 1492. Il se décrit en héraldique de la façon suivante : il est coupé mi-parti. Premièrement, sur un fond d'argent, les figures des Rois catholiques, assis sur leurs trônes, avec couronnes et manteaux, dans leurs couleurs naturelles, à droite le roi Ferdinand V tenant une épée dans la main dextre, et la reine Isabel I avec un sceptre dans la sienne, tous deux couverts par un baldaquin rouge. Le second d'or avec la Torre de...

    Les quartiers anciens de la ville s'étendent sur trois collines en contrebas desquelles s'est développée la ville moderne. Grenade conserve de son riche passé historique un grand nombre de monuments. Les plus beaux vestiges musulmans sont le palais de l'Alhambra (palais fortifié des émirs, XIIIe-XVe siècle), vaste enceinte située sur une colline, comprenant les bâtiments de l'Alcázar (XIVe siècle) et les vestiges de l'Alcazaba (XIIIe siècle). Les autres monuments notables sont l'université, qui reçut sa charte en 1531 de l'empereur Charles Quint ; la cathédrale de style gothique et Renaissance (1523-1703) dont la chapelle royale abrite les tombeaux des Rois catholiques ; les jardins du Generalife ; le palais de Charles Quint (XVIe-XVIIe siècle) ; le monastère Saint-Jérôme (es) (1513-1517) ; l'église Saint-Jean-de-Dieu et la Chartreuse, de style baroque.

    Sur le plan administratif, la ville de Grenade fait partie de la comarque appelée Vega de Granada (une comarque, en Espagne, est un regroupement de communes espagnoles ; voyez aussi la liste des communes de la province de Grenade). La ville est la capitale de la province de Grenade, l'une des huit provinces de l'Andalousie, qui est elle-même l'une des 17 communautés autonomes d'Espagne. En dehors de ces structures administratives, la ville entretient des relations de coopération fréquente avec toute la région géographique de Grenadeen raison des liens historiques qui la lient aux localités voisines.

    La ville de Grenade se divise en une dizaine de quartiers qui ont chacun leur style et leur histoire : le centre, le Realejo, l'Alhambra, l'Albaicín, le Sacromonte, le Beiro, le Chana, le Genil, le Norte, la Ronda, le Zaidín.

    Démographie

    En 2016, la ville de Grenade comptait environ 237 800 habitants[11].

    Manifestations culturelles et festivités

    Grenade accueille chaque année des fêtes religieuses héritées principalement du catholicisme ainsi que des événements culturels et artistiques. Les Fêtes du printemps (Fiestas de Primavera) sont des fêtes catholiques particulièrement célébrées dans la région, qui comprennent la Semaine sainte et la Fête-Dieu. Elles donnent lieu à des processions dans les rues. Le Festival international de musique et de danse de Grenade a lieu chaque année entre la fin du mois de juin et le début du mois de ju...

    Entreprises de Grenade

    1. Puleva

    Monuments

    1. L'Alhambra est une citadelle composée de quatre parties bien distinctes: l'Alcazaba (Al Casbah, « la citadelle »), édifice purement militaire à l'origine du palais ; les palais Nasrides, construits sous la dynastie nasride, sous laquelle Grenade a été la plus florissante ; le Generalife et ses jardins ; et enfin le palais de Charles Quint ; 2. le palais de Dar al-Horra, construit au XVe siècle par les Nasrides; 3. le Corral del Carbón, ancien caravansérail du XIVe siècle converti en auberg...

    Parcs et jardins

    1. Parc Carmen de los Martires; 2. parc de Fuente Nueva; 3. parc de Zaidin; 4. parc Federico García Lorca; 5. jardin botanique de l'université de Grenade (es).

    Musées

    Le musée archéologique et ethnologique de Grenade (Museo Arqueológico y Etnológico de Granada) se situe dans le palais Casa de Castril (es), Carrera del Darro 41. Il abrite des collections d'œuvres et d'objets préhistoriques, antiques et médiévaux retraçant l'histoire des cultures successives qui ont influencé la région. Le musée des beaux-arts de Grenade (Museo de Bellas Artes de Granada), inauguré en 1839 dans l'ancien couvent dominicain de Santa Cruz la Real et transféré en 1958 dans le pa...

    (es) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en espagnol intitulé « Granada » (voir la liste des auteurs).

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  6. File:Escúzar, en Granada (España).jpg - Wikimedia Commons

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