A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus. Streptococcus pyogenes comprises the vast majority of the Lancefield group A streptococci, and is often used as a synonym for GAS. However, S. dysgalactiae can also be group A. S. pyogenes is a beta-hemolytic species of Gram positive bacteria that is responsible for a wide range of both invasive and noninvasive infections. Infection of GAS may spread through direct contact with mucus or sores on the skin. GAS infection
- Types of infection
Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus can cause infections of...
Diagnosis is by a swab of the affected area for laboratory...
S. pyogenes infections are best prevented through effective...
- Types of infection
Group A S. pyogenes is the causative agent in a wide range of group A streptococcal infections (GAS). These infections may be noninvasive or invasive. The noninvasive infections tend to be more common and less severe. The most common of these infections include streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) and impetigo.
Streptococcus pyogenes S. pyogenes bacteria at 900× magnification Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Lactobacillales Family: Streptococcaceae Genus: Streptococcus Species: S. pyogenes Binomial name Streptococcus pyogenes Rosenbach 1884 Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive, aerotolerant bacterium in the genus Streptococcus. These bacteria are extracellular, and made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. It is clinically important
S. pyogenes typically colonizes the throat, genital mucosa, rectum, and skin. Of healthy individuals, 1% to 5% have throat, vaginal, or rectal carriage. In healthy children, such carriage rate varies from 2 to 17%. There are four methods for the transmission of this bacterium: inhalation of respiratory droplets, skin contact, contact with objects, surface, or dust that is contaminated with bacteria or, less commonly, transmission through food. Such bacteria can cause a variety of diseases such a
In 1928, Rebecca Lancefield published a method for serotyping S. pyogenes based on its cell-wall polysaccharide, a virulence factor displayed on its surface. Later, in 1946, Lancefield described the serologic classification of S. pyogenes isolates based on their surface T-antigen
All strains of S. pyogenes are polylysogenized, in that they carry one or more bacteriophage on their genomes. Some of the 'phages may be defective, but in some cases active 'phage may compensate for defects in others. In general, the genome of S. pyogenes strains isolated during
The genomes of different strains were sequenced encoding about 1700-1900 proteins. Complete genome sequences of the type strain of S. pyogenes are available in DNA Data Bank of Japan, European Nucleotide Archive, and GenBank under the accession numbers LN831034 and CP028841.
S. pyogenes is the cause of many human diseases, ranging from mild superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic diseases. Infections typically begin in the throat or skin. The most striking sign is a strawberry-like rash. Examples of mild S. pyogenes infections include pharyngitis and localized skin infection. Erysipelas and cellulitis are characterized by multiplication and lateral spread of S. pyogenes in deep layers of the skin. S. pyogenes invasion and multiplication in the fasci
Many S. pyogenes proteins have unique properties, which have been harnessed in recent years to produce a highly specific "superglue" and a route to enhance the effectiveness of antibody therapy.
The CRISPR system from this organism that is used to recognize and destroy DNA from invading viruses, thus stopping the infection, was appropriated in 2012 for use as a genome-editing tool that could potentially alter any piece of DNA and later RNA.
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- Signs and symptoms
Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus. Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, red tonsils, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. A headache, and nausea or vomiting may also occur. Some develop a sandpaper-like rash which is known as scarlet fever. Symptoms typically begin one to three days after exposure and last seven to ten days. Strep throat is spread by respiratory droplets f
The typical signs and symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis are a sore throat, fever of greater than 38 °C, tonsillar exudates, and large cervical lymph nodes.
Strep throat is caused by group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus. Humans are the only known natural reservoir for group A streptococcus. Other bacteria such as non–group A β-hemolytic streptococci and fusobacterium may also cause pharyngitis. It is spread by direct, close contact with an infected person; thus crowding, as may be found in the military and schools, increases the rate of transmission. Dried bacteria in dust are not infectious, although moist bacteria on toothbrushes or similar ...
A throat culture is the gold standard for the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis, with a sensitivity of 90–95%. A rapid strep test may also be used. While the rapid strep test is quicker, it has a lower sensitivity and statistically equal specificity as a throat ...
As the symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis overlap with other conditions, it can be difficult to make the diagnosis clinically. Coughing, nasal discharge, diarrhea, and red, irritated eyes in addition to fever and sore throat are more indicative of a viral sore throat than of s
Tonsillectomy may be a reasonable preventive measure in those with frequent throat infections. However, the benefits are small and episodes typically lessen in time regardless of measures taken. Recurrent episodes of pharyngitis which test positive for GAS may also represent a person who is a chronic carrier of GAS who is getting recurrent viral infections. Treating people who have been exposed but who are without symptoms is not recommended. Treating people who are carriers of GAS is not recomm
Untreated streptococcal pharyngitis usually resolves within a few days. Treatment with antibiotics shortens the duration of the acute illness by about 16 hours. The primary reason for treatment with antibiotics is to reduce the risk of complications such as rheumatic fever and retropharyngeal abscesses. Antibiotics prevent acute rheumatic fever if given within 9 days of the onset of symptoms.
- Diseases and symptoms
Streptococcus pneumoniae S. pneumoniae in spinal fluid. FA stain. Scientific classification Domain: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Lactobacillales Family: Streptococcaceae Genus: Streptococcus Species: S. pneumoniae Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, spherical bacteria, alpha-hemolytic or beta-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus. They are usually found in pairs and do
In 1881, the organism, known later in 1886 as the pneumococcus for its role as a cause of pneumonia, was first isolated simultaneously and independently by the U.S. Army physician George Sternberg and the French chemist Louis Pasteur. The organism was termed Diplococcus pneumoniae from 1920 because of its characteristic appearance in Gram-stained sputum. It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci. Streptococcus pneumoniae played a central role in
The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending on the strain. It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a noninvasive phenotype. Genetic information can vary up to 10% between strains. The pneumococcal genome is known to contain a large and diverse repertoire of antimicrobial peptides, including 11 different lantibiotics.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As with many natural flora, it can become pathogenic under the right conditions, typically when the immune system of the host is suppressed. Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major virulence factors. After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, the body responds by stimulating the inflammatory response, causing plasma, bl
Pneumonia is the most common of the S. pneumoniae diseases which include symptoms such as fever and chills, cough, rapid breathing, difficulty breathing, and chest pain. For the elderly, they may include confusion, low alertness, and the former listed symptoms to a lesser degree. Pneumococcal meningitis is an infection of the tissue covering the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include stiff neck, fever, headache, confusion, and photophobia. Sepsis is caused by overwhelming response to an infecti
Due to the importance of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, several vaccines have been developed to protect against invasive infection. The World Health Organization recommends routine childhood pneumococcal vaccination; it is incorporated into the childhood immunization schedule in a number of countries including the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Africa.
The Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the anginosus group streptococci or the milleri group streptococci, are a group of several species of streptococci with clinical similarities. The group is named after a principal member species, Streptococcus anginosus. The older name Streptococcus milleri is now pseudotaxonomic, as the idea that these streptococci constituted a single species was incorrect. The anginosus group streptococci are members of the viridans streptococci group. They hav
Members include: 1. Streptococcus anginosus 2. Streptococcus constellatus S. constellatus subsp. constellatus S. constellatus subsp. pharyngis 3. Streptococcus intermedius
These nonhemolytic viridans streptococci were first described by Guthof in 1956 after he isolated them from dental abscesses. He named these organisms Streptococcus milleri in honor of the microbiologist W. D. Miller.
The organisms were subsequently recognized as normal flora of the human oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract with the ability to cause abscesses and systemic infections.
- Role in human disease
- Role in animal disease
- Treatment and antimicrobial susceptibility
Streptococcus dysgalactiae Streptococcus dysgalactiae - Beta Haemolytic Group G Streptococcus on Columbia Horse Blood Agar Scientific classification Kingdom: Bacteria Phylum: Firmicutes Class: Bacilli Order: Lactobacillales Family: Streptococcaceae Genus: Streptococcus Species: S. dysgalactiae Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It is capable of infecting both humans and animals, but is most frequently encount
Streptococcus dysgalactiae was long believed to be non-pathogenic to humans. However, an increasing incidence of S. dysgalactiae infections has been documented, and in some geographic regions, the rate of invasive infection has even surpassed that of Streptococcus pyogenes. The age distribution of invasive cases among humans is clearly skewed towards the elderly, whereas the healthy carrier state appears to have the inverse relation to age. People with chronic maladies, including cancer and diab
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is a commensal in human alimentary tract and genital tract. Occasionally it is isolated from skin, but usually in relation to a chronic skin condition or some breach of the epithelial barrier. Non-invasive disease manifestations include predominantly tonsillitis and superficial skin infections. Additionally, it has long been recognized as a potential cause of cellulitis/erysipelas. However, the role of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisi
Streptococcus dysgalactiae can infect a range of animal hosts, and both subspecies are of importance. However, the bacterium is frequently encountered as a colonizer of healthy animals, especially in the alimentary tract and genital region. In veterinary medicine, it is a well-recognized cause of bovine mastitis, hence the name dys-galactiae. In some geographic regions, it is reported only second to Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of both clinical and subclinical mastitis. S. dysgalactiae has b
Penicillin remains the drug of choice for treating streptococcal infections, and S. dysgalactiae strains with reduced susceptibility to penicillin have never been reported. Treatment duration varies from 5 days to 3 months, depending on the clinical diagnosis. Second-line agents include macrolides and clindamycin, although increasing resistance, due to both efflux and target modification, has been documented in some geographic regions. Aminoglycosides are not active against streptococci due to t
Diernhofer first used the name Streptococcus dysgalactiae in 1932, describing a streptococcus of veterinary origin. Subsequently, Frost reported the discovery of the human pathogen Streptococcus equisimilis in 1936. Contemporarily, though, Rebecca Lancefield devised a classification of streptococci based on their carbohydrate-antigens, and successively described streptococci belonging to group C and group G. The correlation of group carbohydrate specificity with the proposed species S. dysgalact
Group B streptococcal infection, also known as Group B streptococcal disease or just Group B strep, is the infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) (also known as group B streptococcus or GBS).
- Group B streptococcal disease
- related to: group a streptococcus wikipedia
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