Gustavus Adolphus, also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632, and is credited for the rise of Sweden as a great European power. During his reign, Sweden became one of the primary military forces in Europe during the Thirty Years' War, helping to determine the political and religious balance of power in Europe. He was formally and posthumously given the name Gustavus Adolphus the Great by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634. He is often rega
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Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S.) was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632. He is known in English as Gustavus Adolphus . He is often said to have made Sweden a great power. (In Swedish: Stormaktstiden). He is also said to be one of the best military leaders of all time.
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Mar 30, 2021 · Gustavus Adolphus (9/19 December 1594 – 6/16 November 1632, O.S./N.S.), also known in English as Gustav II Adolf or Gustav II Adolph, was the King of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 who is credited for the founding of Sweden as a great power (Swedish: Stormaktstiden).
Gustavus Adolphus College, a private liberal arts college in southern Minnesota. Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden (Oskar Fredrik Wilhelm Olaf Gustaf Adolf) Gustavus Conyngham, merchant sea captain, officer in the Continental Navy and a privateer. Operation Gustavus, World War II British commando operation in Malaya.
- Legacy as A General
- Military Commander
- Gustavus Adolphus Day
- in Popular Culture
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Gustavus Adolphus was born in Stockholm as the oldest son of Duke Charles of the Vasa dynasty and his second wife, Christina of Holstein-Gottorp. At the time, the King of Sweden was Gustavus Adolphus' cousin Sigismund. The staunch Protestant Duke Charles forced the Catholic King to let go of the throne of Sweden in 1599, a part of the preliminary religious strife before the Thirty Years' War, and reigned as regent before taking the throne as Charles IX of Sweden in 1604. Crown Prince Gustav Adolph had Gagnef-Floda in Dalecarlia as a duchy from 1610. Upon his father's death in October 1611, a sixteen-year-old Gustavus inherited the throne (declared of age and able to reign himself at seventeen as of 16 December), as well as an ongoing succession of occasionally belligerent dynastic disputes with his Polish cousin. Sigismund III wanted to regain the throne of Sweden and tried to force Gustavus Adolphus to renounce the title. In a round of this dynastic dispute, Gustavus invaded Livoni...
Gustavus Adolphus was an extremely able military commander. His innovative tactical integration of infantry, cavalry, logistics and particularly his use of artillery, earned him the title of the "Father of Modern Warfare". Future commanders who studied and admired Gustav II Adolf include Napoleon I of France and Carl von Clausewitz. His advancements in military science made Sweden the dominant Baltic power for the next one hundred years (see Swedish Empire). He is also the only Swedish monarch to be styled "the Great". This decision was made by the Swedish Estates of the Realm, when they convened in 1633. Thus, by their decision he is officially, to this day, to be called Gustaf Adolf the Great (Gustavus Adolphus Magnus). Gustavus Adolphus was the main figure responsible for the success of Swedish arms during the Thirty Years' War and led his nation to great prestige. As a general, Gustavus Adolphus is famous for employing mobile artillery on the battlefield, as well as very aggress...
Gustavus Adolphus was a very forward thinking military engineer. He reengineered the way in which his army worked, with simple innovations that proved devastating to his adversaries.One example of this was the Swedish cavalry system. Cavalry had been pushed to the fringes of military worth and had been largely neutralized by the Spanish tercios. They were being ineffectively used to charge the enemy front or flank, fire broadsides with pistols and muskets and then retreat to reload and reform.However, Gustavus Adolphus used light cannons (reengineered to have 3 standard calibers, one of which was eventually called "The Regimental Cannon,") along with muskets to eliminate enemy pikemen, then the cavalry would swoop in and cut through enemy lines with sabers. Adolphus then faced the problem of equipping this newly raised army. To do so, he thought it necessary to make sure everyone had the same equipment. Standardizing this way makes mass production, training and maintenance much easi...
File:Gustav2AdRiddarh.jpg|thumb|300px|Gustav Adolph's sarcophagus at Riddarholmskyrkan|Riddarholm ChurchGustavus Adolphus inherited three wars from his father when he ascended the throne: Against Denmark, which had attacked Sweden earlier in 1611, against Russia, due to Sweden having tried to take advantage of the Russian Time of Troubles, and against Poland, due to King Charles' having deposed King Sigismund III, his nephew, as King of Sweden. The war against Denmark (Kalmar War) was concluded in 1613 with a peace that did not cost Sweden any territory, but it was forced to pay a heavy indemnity to Denmark (Treaty of Knäred). During this war, Gustavus Adolphus let his soldiers plunder towns and villages and as he met little resistance from Danish forces in Scania, they pillaged and devastated 24 Scanian parishes. His memory in Scania has been negative because of that. The war against Russia (Ingrian War) ended in 1617 with the Treaty of Stolbovo, which excluded Russia from the Balt...
Gustav II Adolf's success in making Sweden one of the great powers of Europe, and perhaps the most important power in the Thirty Years' War after France and Spain, was due not only to his military brilliance, but also to important institutional reforms in Sweden's government. The chief among these reforms was the institution of the first Parish registrations, so that the central government could more efficiently tax and conscript its populace. Gustav II Adolf's politics in the conquered territory of Estonia also show progressive tendencies. In 1631 he forced the nobility to grant the peasants greater autonomy. He also encouraged education, opening a school in Tallinn in 1631, today known as Gustav Adolf Grammar School (Estonian language: Gustav Adolfi Gümnaasium) On 30 June 1632, Gustav II Adolf signed the Foundation Decree of Academia Dorpatensis in Estonia, today known as the University of Tartu.With policies that supported the common people, the period of Swedish rule over Estoni...December 1594. Gustavus is born in the castle of Tre Kronor, Sweden.October 1611. Gustavus gains the Swedish throne and three wars (Kalmar War, Ingrian War and the Polish War) after his father, Charles IX's, death.February 1612. The Battle of Vittsjöagainst Denmark where Gustavus almost drowns.January 1613. Gustavus negotiates peace after repulsing the Danish invasion in the Kalmar War with the status quo ante bellum. However, a ransom has to be paid for Älvsborg fortress.
Gustavus Adolphus Day is celebrated in Sweden, Estonia and Finland each year on 6 November. On this day only, a special pastry with a chocolate or marzipan medallion of the king, is sold. The day is also an official flag day in the Swedish calendar. In Finland, the day is celebrated as svenska dagen or ruotsalaisuuden päivä, "Swedishness Day", and is a customary flag day. In Estonia, the day is known as Gustav Adolfi päev. In all three countries, 6 November is the name dayfor Gustav Adolf, one of the few exceptional name days in the year.Bertolt Brecht's play Mother Courage and Her Childrenmentions Gustavus Adolphus several times in the earlier scenes during which the characters are traveling with the Protestant Army. The Cook lamp...In the Ring of Fire series of novels by Eric Flint and others, Gustavus Adolphus is a major character, having not died in the Battle of Lützen. He helps a community of West Virginians, cosmically t...The Swedish power metal band Sabaton made an album about the Thirty Years War called Carolus Rex which includes multiple songs about and references to Gustavus Adolphus.Gustav Adolphus is featured as a playable character in the turn-based strategy game, Civilization V: Gods and Kings.History of Sweden – Rise of Sweden as a Great PowerAxel OxenstiernaGustav Gustavsson af VasaborgGustavus Adolphus CollegeAhnlund, Nils. Gustav Adolf the Great,trans. Michael Roberts. Princeton, 1940.Brzezinski, Richard. The Army of Gustavus Adolphus. Osprey Publishing (1993). ISBN 1-85532-350-8.Earle, E.M. ed. Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler, 1948.Nordstrom, Byron J. "Gustavus II Adolphus (Sweden) (1594–1632; Ruled 1611–1632)" Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World: Europe, 1450 to 17892004.
Gustavus Adolphus College (/ ɡ ə s ˈ t eɪ v ə s / gəs-TAY-vəs) is a private liberal arts college in St. Peter, Minnesota. It was founded in 1862 by Swedish Americans led by the Rev. Eric Norelius and is affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Gustavus gets its name from Gustavus Adolphus, the King of Sweden from 1611 ...