L'hectare (symbole : ha) est une unité de mesure de superficie  valant 100 ares. Un hectare correspond à 10 000 mètres carrés soit l'équivalent d'une surface carrée de 100 mètres de côté, soit un hectomètre carré.
To help compare orders of magnitude of different areas, areas between 1 hectare (10,000 m²) and 10 hectares (0.1 km²) are listed below. Areas smaller than 1 hectare; 1 hectare is equal to: 1 E+4 m² or 10,000 m²; 100 m × 100 m; 100 ares; 108,000 square feet; 2.47 acres; 1.2126 hectares -- Plaza Mayor of Madrid; 1.35 hectares -- Piazza del Popolo, Rome
France is Europe's biggest producer (and the world's second largest producer) with 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres) cultivated.  70–80% of the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications.
- 4.67 g
- 2,451 kJ (586 kcal)
- 4.0 g (around 20 g when whole)
- 1.50 g 0.07 g
With over 185,000 acres (750 km 2) planted under vine, the Loire Valley is about two-thirds the size of the Bordeaux wine region. Due to its location and marginal climate, the overall quality of a vintage has a dramatic effect on the quality of the region's wines—more so than with other French wine regions.
Dec 25, 2018 · The hectare (/ ˈ h ɛ k t ɛər, - t ɑːr /; SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100-metre sides, or 10,000 m 2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.  There are 100 hectares in one square kilometre. An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres.
Generally, the aviaries were integrated into a stable, a barn or a shed, and were permitted to use no more than 1 hectare (2 1 ⁄ 2 acres) of arable land. [ citation needed ] Although they produced an excellent fertilizer (known as colombine ), the lord's pigeons were often seen as a nuisance by the nearby peasant farmers, in particular when ...
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km 2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. Bourges ( French pronunciation: [buʁʒ] ( listen)) is a commune in central France on the river Yèvre. It is the capital of the department of Cher, and also was the capital of the former province of Berry .
- Production Statistics
- Genome and Packaging Into Chromosomes
- External Links
The sugar beet has a conical, white, fleshy root (a taproot) with a flat crown. The plant consists of the root and a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed by photosynthesisin the leaves and is then stored in the root. The root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar, and 5% pulp. The exact sugar content can vary between 12% and 21% sugar, depending on the cultivar and growing conditions. Sugar is the primary value of sugar beet as a cash crop. The pulp, insoluble in water and mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, is used in animal feed. The byproducts of the sugar beet crop, such as pulp and molasses, add another 10% to the value of the harvest. Sugar beets grow exclusively in the temperate zone, in contrast to sugarcane, which grows exclusively in the tropical and subtropical zones. The average weight of a sugar beet ranges between 0.5 and 1 kg (1.1 and 2.2 lb). Sugar beet foliage has a rich, brilliant green color and grows to a height of about 35 cm...
Modern sugar beets date back to mid-18th century Silesia where Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, subsidised experiments aimed at processes for sugar extraction. In 1747, Andreas Marggraf isolated sugar from beetroots and found them at concentrations of 1.3–1.6%. He also demonstrated that the sugar that could be extracted from beets was identical to that produced from cane. His student, Franz Karl Achard, evaluated 23 varieties of mangelwurzel for sugar content and selected a local strain from Halberstadt in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this strain for white, conical tubers. The selection was named weiße schlesische Zuckerrübe, meaning white Silesian sugar beet, and boasted about a 6% sugar content.This selection is the progenitor of all modern sugar beets. A royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in Kunern, Silesia (now Konary, Poland) in 1801. The Silesian sugar...
The sugar beet, like sugarcane, needs a peculiar soil and a proper climate for its successful cultivation. The most important requirement is the soil must contain a large supply of nutrients, be rich in humus, and be able to contain a great deal of moisture. A certain amount of alkali is not necessarily detrimental, as sugar beets are not especially susceptible to injury by some alkali. The ground should be fairly level and well-drained, especially where irrigationis practiced. Generous crops can be grown in both sandy soil and heavy loams, but the ideal soil is a sandy loam, i.e., a mixture of organic matter, clay and sand. A subsoil of gravel, or the presence of hard-pan, is not desirable, as cultivation to a depth of from 12 to 15 inches (30.5 to 38.1 cm) is necessary to produce the best results. Climatic conditions, temperature, sunshine, rainfall and winds have an important bearing upon the success of sugar beet agriculture. A temperature ranging from 15 to 21 °C (59.0 to 69.8...
The world harvested 250,191,362 metric tons (246,200,000 long tons; 275,800,000 short tons) of sugar beets in 2013. The world's largest producer was the Russia, with a 42,321,161 metric tons (41,700,000 long tons; 46,700,000 short tons) harvest. The average yield of sugar beet crops worldwide was 58.2 tonnes per hectare. The most productive sugar beet farms in the world, in 2010, were in Chile, with a nationwide average yield of 87.3 tonnes per hectare. Imperial Valley (California)farmers have achieved yields of about 160 tonnes per hectare and over 26 tonnes sugar per hectare. Imperial Valley farms benefit from high intensities of incident sunlight and intensive use of irrigation and fertilizers. The sugar industry in the EU came under bureaucratic pressure in 2006 and ultimately resulted in the loss of 20,000 jobs, although many factories, as detailed in a later 2010 EU audit, were found to have been mistakenly shut down, as they were profitable without government intervention.Wes...
In 1935, the inputs required to process 1 short ton (2,000.00 lb; 907.18 kg) of beets to sugar was outlined as follows: 1. 80 pounds (36 kg) limestone 2. 250 pounds (110 kg) coke (to convert limestone to quicklime) 3. 2,500 US gallons (9,500 l; 2,100 imp gal) water
Sugar beets are an important part of a crop rotationcycle. Sugar beet plants are susceptible to Rhizomania ("root madness"), which turns the bulbous tap root into many small roots, making the crop economically unprocessable. Strict controls are enforced in European countries to prevent the spread, but it is already present in some areas. It is also susceptible to both the beet leaf curl virus, which causes crinkling and stunting of the leaves and beet yellows virus. Continual research looks for varieties with resistance, as well as increased sugar yield. Sugar beet breeding research in the United States is most prominently conducted at various USDA Agricultural Research Stations, including one in Fort Collins, Colorado, headed by Linda Hanson and Leonard Panella; one in Fargo, North Dakota, headed by John Wieland; and one at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, headed by J. Mitchell McGrath. Other economically important members of the subfamily Chenopodioideae: 1. Be...
The sugar beet genome has been sequenced and two reference genome sequences have already been generated. The genome size of the sugar beet is approximately 731 Megabases, and sugar beet DNA is packaged in 18 metacentric chromosomes (2n=2x=18). All sugar beet centromeres are made up of a single satellite DNA family and centromere-specific LTR retrotransposons.More than 60% of sugar beet's DNA is repetitive, mostly distributed in a dispersed way along the chromosomes. Crop wild beet populations (B. vulgaris ssp. maritima) have been sequenced as well, allowing for identification of the resistance gene Rz2 in the wild progenitor. Rz2confers resistance to rhizomania, commonly known as the sugar beet root madness disease.Guardian (UK)article on how sugar beet can be used for fuelSugar beet culture in the northern Great Plains area hosted by the University of North Texas Government Documents DepartmentUS court bans GM sugar beet: Cultivation to take place under controlled conditions? Archived 2010-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
+ 5.000–loc./km² 2 de la 300 la 1.000 loc./km² de la 100 la 250 loc./km² de la 70 la 100 loc./km² de la 40 la 70 loc./km² - 40 loc./km² Relieful și densitatea populației pe km² în 2001. Franța metropolitană este marcată de multiple dezechilibre spațiale. Pe de o parte, ea este originală prin faptul că are o capitală de șase ori mai populată decât a doua arie urbană a ...
The International System of Units is the standard modern form of the metric system. The name of this system can be shortened or abbreviated to SI, from the French name Système International d'unités . The International System of Units is a system of measurement based on 7 base units: the metre (length), kilogram (mass), second (time), ampere ...