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  1. Hectare — Wikipédia › wiki › Hectare

    L’ hectare (symbole : ha) est une unité de mesure de superficie valant 100 ares. Un hectare correspond à 10 000 mètres carrés soit l'équivalent d'une surface carrée de 100 mètres de côté, soit un hectomètre carré. Cette unité ne fait pas partie du Système international d'unités (SI) mais son usage est accepté avec lui.

  2. Agriculture en France — Wikipédia › wiki › Agriculture_en_France

    La majorité des terres étant destinée à nourrir le bétail . L'agriculture occupe 53,2 % de la surface de la France métropolitaine, et jusqu'à 75 % environ dans des régions telles que le Nord-Pas-de-Calais. Elle employait, en 2018, 410 000 personnes soit 1,5 % de la population active totale.

    • 1,5 % (2018)
    • 59,5 milliards d'euros (2015)
  3. People also ask

    Quelle est la superficie d'un hectare ?

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  4. List of Remarkable Gardens of France - Wikipedia › wiki › List_of_Remarkable_Gardens
    • Gardens of Alsace
    • Gardens of Aquitaine
    • Gardens of The Auvergne
    • Gardens of Burgundy
    • Gardens of Brittany
    • Gardens of The Centre-Val de Loire
    • Gardens of Champagne-Ardenne
    • Gardens of Franche-Comté
    • Gardens of The Île-de-France
    • Gardens of Languedoc-Roussillon


    1. Brumath -Jardin de l'Escalier. (1973) Small private modern romantic floral garden. (See Photos) 2. Kintzheim – The Park of Ruins of the Château de Kintzheim. An early 19th-century romantic landscape garden. (See photos) 3. Kolbsheim – The Garden of the Château de Kolbsheim. (1703) French garden and English landscape park. (See photos) 4. Ottrott – Le Domaine de Windeck. (1835). Romantic landscape park, with views of the ruined castle of Ottrott. (See photos) 5. Plobsheim – Le Jardin de Mar...


    1. Guebwiller – Parc de la Marseillaise. Public arboretum and botanical garden, designed by Édouard André between 1897 and 1899. (See photos) 2. Husseren-Wesserling – Parc de Wesserling (17 hectares) Private garden at the site of a hunting lodge of the prince-abbey of Murbach (1699). Formal French garden, flower garden, kitchen garden, field garden and contemporary garden. (see photos) 3. Mulhouse – Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse. (25 hectares) Public botanical gardens and zoo, Engl...


    1. Domme – Park and Boxwood Garden of the Château de Caudon. A garden à la française and French landscape garden, created between 1808 and 1814 by the Marquis Jacques de Malville, one of the authors of the French Civil Code. See pictures 1. Eymet – Park and Kitchen Garden of Pouthet. A small 18th-century château in the valley of the Dropt River features an avenue of cedar planted in 1860; cyclamen, crocus and jonquil in season; and a garden of vegetables and flowers grouped by color. (See pic...


    1. Cussac-Fort-Médoc – Park of the Château Lanessan. The garden is surrounded by the vineyards of the château, in the Médoc wine region of Bordeaux. The château and gardens were built in 1878 by the architect Duphot. The gardens are in the English style, with avenues, lawns, and cedar, cypress and plane trees.(see photos) 2. Portets – Gardens of the Château de Mongénan. The château was built in 1736 and the botanical gardens created in 1741 by the Baron de Gasq, inspired by his friend and mus...


    1. Dax – Park of Sarrat. The park, formerly the home and garden of architect René Guichemerre, was created by him from the 1950s until his death in 1988. It contains his modern house, inspired by the architects Richard Neutra and Frank Lloyd Wright; an impressive alley of plane trees; a French garden with fountain and cascade; an extensive kitchen garden; and a botanical garden with 320 kinds of trees, many of them rare. (See photos)


    1. Villeneuve-sur-Allier – The Arboretum de Balaine is the oldest private botanical garden in France. It was begun in 1804, but largely was the creation of Aglaé Adanson, the daughter of French naturalist Michel Adanson, who was responsible for the Petit Trianon botanical garden of Louis XV. She settled there in 1812, at the age of thirty, and established it as one of the earliest acclimatization gardens in France, designed to accustom exotic plants from France's colonies to the climate of Fr...


    Issoire – The Gardens of the Château d'Hauterive were originally part of the domaine of the Abbey of Issoire, founded in the 10th century. The present buildings date to the late 17th century; documents and old watercolors show that the gardens existed in 1680–1691, with much the same plan as today. The gardens are a classical composition of lawns, avenues, eight parterres around a central basin, hedges, and small groves of trees. Flowers include peonies, irises, lilies, delphiniums, sage, lup...

    Côte d'Or

    1. Arceau – Gardens of the Château d'Arcelot. The gardens, located on a gentle slope between the château and a large pond, were created in 1805 by architect Jean-Marie Morel. They feature a Chinese pavilion, old trees, including a giant bald cypress large enough to hold a man inside; and an orangerie, with vegetable gardens and an orchard. (see photos) 1. Athie – The Mill of Athie. The mill was built in the 16th century and continued to operate until the early 20th century, when it was conver...


    1. Alligny-en-Morvan – Park and Garden of the Château de La Chaux. A pastoral garden created in the mid-19th century, around a small château and a hamlet of farm buildings. The garden features many trees planted in 1850, including a double alley of giant sequoias; a grove of Cedar of Lebanon; Copper beeches, ash trees and tulip trees; as well as beds of wisterias, roses, hortensias, alleys of pink peonies and blue irises; lavender; a medicinal herb garden; magnolias, rhododendrons, and a carp...


    1. Anglure-sous-Dun – The Garden of the Zéphyr. A private garden of one hectare in the English and contemporary styles, created beginning in 2000 by a couple passionate about gardening, which takes perfect advantage of its hilly site. The wooded portions contain twenty varieties of maple, 10 varieties of birch, and oak, conifers, beech, and hornbeam. Bushes and flowers include hydrangeas, dogwood, dahlias and three hundred varieties of roses.(see photos) 1. Curbigny – Gardens of the Château d...


    1. Ploëzal – Garden of the château de la Roche-Jagu. A contemporary garden, inspired by medieval gardens, overlooking the estuary of the Trieux River. The centerpiece is a great oak, 350 years old, in the courtyard of the château. The garden features a medieval kitchen garden; a medicinal garden, a medieval flower garden; an avenue of camellias, with one thousand plants of 350 varieties; palm trees; a rose garden; jasmine, wisterias, grapevines, and an alley of pergolas with honeysuckle.(see...


    1. Île de Batz – Garden of George Delasselle. Windswept sand dunes on the Breton coast were transformed into a subtropical oasis and garden in 1897, with many varieties of cacti, palms and other plants from the northern and southern hemispheres. The garden was abandoned for thirty years, then restored beginning in 1987. (see photos) 2. Combrit – The Botanical Garden of Cornouaille. A private botanical garden created in 1983, with more than two thousand varieties of trees, bushes and plants fr...


    1. Antrain – The Park of the Château de Bonnefontaine is a large French landscape garden surrounding a restored 15th–16th-century château in the Breton Renaissance style. The garden was created beginning in 1860, when the château was restored. The garden and château are presently owned by the Count Merendec de Rohan Chabot. The 25-hectare garden consists of large natural spaces with perspectives and groves of trees, both local and exotic. The trees in the park include sequoias, bald cypresses...


    1. Ainay-le-Vieil – Gardens of the Château d'Ainay-le-Vieil.The gardens feature a large collection of roses, a one-hectare island garden, a meditation garden, and a topiary garden of trees and shrubs carved into ornamental shapes. 2. Apremont-sur-Allier – Flower gardens of Apremont. 3. Bourges – Garden of Prés Fichaux. 4. Chassy – Gardens of the Château de Villiers. The château dates to the 17th and 18th centuries, and originally had a formal French floral garden laid out in parterres. The ch...


    1. Illiers-Combray – The Pré Catelan. The forested park along the Loire River was created in the 19th century by Jules Amiot, the uncle of author Marcel Proust. Proust played there as a child – in Proust's novel In Search of Lost Time, the park is called Le Parc de Swann. The lower part of the park has several small exotic ornamental structures, recalling Algeria, where Amiot spent part of his life.


    1. Bouges-le-Château – Gardens of the Château de Bouges. The château was built in 1765 on lands acquired by Charles-François Leblanc de Manarval, the master of the royal forges and the director of the royal manufacturer of cloth in Châteauroux, and was modeled after the Petit Trianon Palace in the domain of Versailles. After the French Revolution, the château became the property of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, the Foreign Minister of Napoleon Bonaparte. Talleyrand put it at the dis...


    1. Barberey-Saint-Sulpice – Park and Garden of the Château de Barbery. The château was built in 1626 by Jean Ier de Mairat, in the Louis XIII of France style. The gardens were restored in 1965, and feature a French garden with hedges and topiary trees and hedges, and an English-style park with Italian poplars, lindens, Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica 'glauca'), American oaks, and Virginia tulip trees.(See photos)


    1. Nanteuil-la-Forêt – Jardin botanique de la Presle. A private botanical garden of two hectares created in 1998, featuring five hundred varieties of roses, and plants from North America, Europe and Asia. (See photos) 1. Sézanne – Entre Cour et Jardin. A private garden surrounding an 18th-century residence in the vineyards of Champagne which once belonged to the Marquise de la Forge. The garden in the French classic style features sculpted hedges and bushes, fountains, and a colorful variety...


    1. Thonnance-lès-Joinville (Haute-Marne) – Les Jardins de mon Moulin.Located next to an old mill, this one-hectare garden features a rose garden with 500 rosebushes; a water garden; a garden of white flowers; and a recreation of a medieval garden. (See Photos)


    1. Arlay – The Park and the "Garden of Games" of the Château d'Arlay. The pre-romantic park was created in 1780, around the ruins of a château which had belonged to the lords of Chalon-Arlay, princes of the House of Orange. An avenue of linden trees leads to a hill where the ruins of the château overlook the vineyards. In 1996, the Garden of Games was created beside the château, with a bowling green, cascades of plants and flower gardens illustrating the theme of amusement. 2. Dole – Le Jardi...


    1. Battrans – Parc de l'Étang.A private arboretum of three hectares beside a pond, with 350 varieties of trees, bushes and flowers, created beginning in 1972. (see photos)


    1. Anjoutey – Roseraie du Châtelet. A private contemporary arboretum begun in 1990, located in an old glacial valley, featuring six hundred varieties of roses and a water garden with sixty-five types of bamboo. (See Pictures)


    1. Paris – The Garden of the Palais-Royal. The Palais-Royal was the residence of Cardinal Richelieu in the 17th century until his death in 1642. It was then the residence of the young King Louis XIV and his brother, then of the Orléans family, until the French Revolution, when it was confiscated in 1793. The garden was created in 1731 by the architect Victor Louis and renovated in 1992 by landscape architect Mark Rudkin, who added new promenades and spaces for contemplation. The courtyard of...


    1. Champs-sur-Marne – Garden of the Château de Champs-sur-Marne. The château and gardens were created in 1703, in the reign of Louis XIV, by a businessman, Monsieur Bourvallais, who commissioned Claude Desgots, grandnephew of André Le Nôtre, to design a classical garden with a grand perspective of the Marne Valley. In 1739, it became the property of the duc de La Vallière, who had the garden modified by Garnier d'Isle. During the French Revolution the garden was abandoned and used to grow veg...


    1. Choisel – Park of the Château de Breteuil. A private park and garden of 75 hectares, surrounding the château. The French garden was begun in the 17th century, an English park added in the 18th century, and the French garden was redesigned in 1895 by the owner, Henri de Breteuil, and the landscape architect Achille Duchêne. Major features, including a labyrinth, were added since 1990 by the current owners, Henri-François and Séverine de Breteuil. See photos 1. Rambouillet – Domaine national...


    1. Montaren – Le Jardin du Temple. A collection of fourteen traditional walled gardens with the flowers and vegetables of the region. (see pictures and description) 2. Générargues – the Bamboo Garden of Prafance is a private botanical garden, created in 1856, with one of Europe's oldest and largest collections of bamboos. 3. Nîmes – Jardin de la Fontaine. A public park with a water garden and garden à la française created in 1738–1755 around a spring which provided water to the city since Rom...


    1. Margon – The Park and Garden of the Château de Margon. The château dates to the 15th century, with additions made in the 16th, 17th and 18th century. The park and terraces are open to the public. 2. Montpellier – The Park and Gardens of Flaugergues. An 18th-century château and garden à la française, a 19th-century landscape park, and a botanical garden. (photos and more information) 1. Servian – Jardin des Carrières de Saint-Adrien (Garden of the Quarries of Saint-Adrien). A modern private...

  5. Ovillers-la-Boisselle - Wikipedia › wiki › Ovillers

    The commune of Ovillers-la-Boisselle is situated 22 kilometres (14 mi) northeast of Amiens and extends to the north and south of the D 929 Albert–Bapaume road. The constituent village of Ovillers-la-Boisselle (commonly shortened to "Ovillers") lies on the north of the D 929 road, north-east of Aveluy and south-west of Pozières .

  6. Franța - Wikipedia › wiki › Franta

    + 5.000–loc./km² 2 de la 300 la 1.000 loc./km² de la 100 la 250 loc./km² de la 70 la 100 loc./km² de la 40 la 70 loc./km² - 40 loc./km² Relieful și densitatea populației pe km² în 2001. Franța metropolitană este marcată de multiple dezechilibre spațiale. Pe de o parte, ea este originală prin faptul că are o capitală de șase ori mai populată decât a doua arie urbană a ...

    • 0,26%
    • Mont Blanc (4.808,72 m-uri)
  7. Jean-Baptiste de La Quintinie - Wikipedia › wiki › Jean-Baptiste_de_La_Quintinie

    Jean-Baptiste de La Quintinie (1 March 1626 – 11 November 1688) was a French lawyer, gardener and agronomist who served under Louis XIV.Named director of the royal fruit and vegetable gardens by the king in 1670, he created between 1678 and 1683 the Potager du roi ("King's vegetable garden") near the Palace of Versailles.

  8. Étaples - Wikipedia › wiki › Etaples

    1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km 2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. Étaples or Étaples-sur-Mer ( French: [etapl]; West Flemish: Stapel) is a commune in the Pas-de-Calais department in northern France. It is a fishing and leisure port on the Canche river.

  9. Carménère - Wikipedia › wiki › Carménère

    The Carménère grape is a wine grape variety originally planted in the Médoc region of Bordeaux, France, where it was used to produce deep red wines and occasionally used for blending purposes in the same manner as Petit Verdot. A member of the Cabernet family of grapes, the name "Carménère" originates from the French word for crimson which refers to the brilliant crimson colour of the autumn foliage prior to leaf-fall. The grape is also known as Grande Vidure, a historic Bordeaux ...

  10. Sugar beet - Wikipedia › wiki › Sugar_beet
    • Description
    • History
    • Culture
    • Production Statistics
    • Processing
    • Agriculture
    • Genome and Packaging Into Chromosomes
    • External Links

    The sugar beet has a conical, white, fleshy root (a taproot) with a flat crown. The plant consists of the root and a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed by photosynthesisin the leaves and is then stored in the root. The root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar, and 5% pulp. The exact sugar content can vary between 12% and 21% sugar, depending on the cultivar and growing conditions. Sugar is the primary value of sugar beet as a cash crop. The pulp, insoluble in water and mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, is used in animal feed. The byproducts of the sugar beet crop, such as pulp and molasses, add another 10% to the value of the harvest. Sugar beets grow exclusively in the temperate zone, in contrast to sugarcane, which grows exclusively in the tropical and subtropical zones. The average weight of a sugar beet ranges between 0.5 and 1 kg (1.1 and 2.2 lb). Sugar beet foliage has a rich, brilliant green color and grows to a height of about 35 cm...

    Modern sugar beets date back to mid-18th century Silesia where Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, subsidised experiments aimed at processes for sugar extraction. In 1747, Andreas Marggraf isolated sugar from beetroots and found them at concentrations of 1.3–1.6%. He also demonstrated that the sugar that could be extracted from beets was identical to that produced from cane. His student, Franz Karl Achard, evaluated 23 varieties of mangelwurzel for sugar content and selected a local strain from Halberstadt in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this strain for white, conical tubers. The selection was named weiße schlesische Zuckerrübe, meaning white Silesian sugar beet, and boasted about a 6% sugar content.This selection is the progenitor of all modern sugar beets. A royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in Kunern, Silesia (now Konary, Poland) in 1801. The Silesian sugar...

    The sugar beet, like sugarcane, needs a peculiar soil and a proper climate for its successful cultivation. The most important requirement is the soil must contain a large supply of nutrients, be rich in humus, and be able to contain a great deal of moisture. A certain amount of alkali is not necessarily detrimental, as sugar beets are not especially susceptible to injury by some alkali. The ground should be fairly level and well-drained, especially where irrigationis practiced. Generous crops can be grown in both sandy soil and heavy loams, but the ideal soil is a sandy loam, i.e., a mixture of organic matter, clay and sand. A subsoil of gravel, or the presence of hard-pan, is not desirable, as cultivation to a depth of from 12 to 15 inches (30.5 to 38.1 cm) is necessary to produce the best results. Climatic conditions, temperature, sunshine, rainfall and winds have an important bearing upon the success of sugar beet agriculture. A temperature ranging from 15 to 21 °C (59.0 to 69.8...

    The world harvested 250,191,362 metric tons (246,200,000 long tons; 275,800,000 short tons) of sugar beets in 2013. The world's largest producer was the Russia, with a 42,321,161 metric tons (41,700,000 long tons; 46,700,000 short tons) harvest. The average yield of sugar beet crops worldwide was 58.2 tonnes per hectare. The most productive sugar beet farms in the world, in 2010, were in Chile, with a nationwide average yield of 87.3 tonnes per hectare. Imperial Valley (California)farmers have achieved yields of about 160 tonnes per hectare and over 26 tonnes sugar per hectare. Imperial Valley farms benefit from high intensities of incident sunlight and intensive use of irrigation and fertilizers. The sugar industry in the EU came under bureaucratic pressure in 2006 and ultimately resulted in the loss of 20,000 jobs, although many factories, as detailed in a later 2010 EU audit, were found to have been mistakenly shut down, as they were profitable without government intervention.Wes...

    In 1935, the inputs required to process 1 short ton (2,000.00 lb; 907.18 kg) of beets to sugar was outlined as follows: 1. 80 pounds (36 kg) limestone 2. 250 pounds (110 kg) coke (to convert limestone to quicklime) 3. 2,500 US gallons (9,500 l; 2,100 imp gal) water

    Sugar beets are an important part of a crop rotationcycle. Sugar beet plants are susceptible to Rhizomania ("root madness"), which turns the bulbous tap root into many small roots, making the crop economically unprocessable. Strict controls are enforced in European countries to prevent the spread, but it is already present in some areas. It is also susceptible to both the beet leaf curl virus, which causes crinkling and stunting of the leaves and beet yellows virus. Continual research looks for varieties with resistance, as well as increased sugar yield. Sugar beet breeding research in the United States is most prominently conducted at various USDA Agricultural Research Stations, including one in Fort Collins, Colorado, headed by Linda Hanson and Leonard Panella; one in Fargo, North Dakota, headed by John Wieland; and one at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, headed by J. Mitchell McGrath. Other economically important members of the subfamily Chenopodioideae: 1. Be...

    The sugar beet genome has been sequenced and two reference genome sequences have already been generated. The genome size of the sugar beet is approximately 731 Megabases, and sugar beet DNA is packaged in 18 metacentric chromosomes (2n=2x=18). All sugar beet centromeres are made up of a single satellite DNA family and centromere-specific LTR retrotransposons.More than 60% of sugar beet's DNA is repetitive, mostly distributed in a dispersed way along the chromosomes. Crop wild beet populations (B. vulgaris ssp. maritima) have been sequenced as well, allowing for identification of the resistance gene Rz2 in the wild progenitor. Rz2confers resistance to rhizomania, commonly known as the sugar beet root madness disease.

    Guardian (UK)article on how sugar beet can be used for fuel
    Sugar beet culture in the northern Great Plains area hosted by the University of North Texas Government Documents Department
    US court bans GM sugar beet: Cultivation to take place under controlled conditions? Archived 2010-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
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