The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated population of 12,174,880, or about 18 percent of the population of France as of 2017. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion ($808 billion) in 2017.
Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. It can be used to make a wide range of products. Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants on Earth.
- 4.67 g
- 2,451 kJ (586 kcal)
- 4.0 g (around 20 g when whole)
- 1.50 g 0.07 g
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A Roman road linked Lillebonne (Juliobona) at the mouth of the Seine through the current territory of the commune of Le Havre. The first mention of Graville Abbey was in the 9th century, about Sanvic on the plateau. The village of Leure and its commercial port appear in the 11th century.
Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara ( French pronunciation: [tɔma sɑ̃kaʁa]; 21 December 1949 – 15 October 1987) was a Burkinabé militant social justice campaigner and President of Burkina Faso from 1983 to 1987. A Marxist–Leninist and pan-Africanist, he was viewed by supporters as a charismatic and iconic figure of revolution and is sometimes ...
Haneda Airport is open 24 hours, although Terminal 1 and the domestic sections of Terminal 2 are only open from 5:00 am to 12:00 am. Terminal hours may be extended to 24-hour operation due to StarFlyer 's late-night and early-morning service between Haneda and Kitakyushu , which began in March 2006.
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The sugar beet has a conical, white, fleshy root (a taproot) with a flat crown. The plant consists of the root and a rosette of leaves. Sugar is formed by photosynthesisin the leaves and is then stored in the root. The root of the beet contains 75% water, about 20% sugar, and 5% pulp. The exact sugar content can vary between 12% and 21% sugar, depending on the cultivar and growing conditions. Sugar is the primary value of sugar beet as a cash crop. The pulp, insoluble in water and mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, is used in animal feed. The byproducts of the sugar beet crop, such as pulp and molasses, add another 10% to the value of the harvest. Sugar beets grow exclusively in the temperate zone, in contrast to sugarcane, which grows exclusively in the tropical and subtropical zones. The average weight of a sugar beet ranges between 0.5 and 1 kg (1.1 and 2.2 lb). Sugar beet foliage has a rich, brilliant green color and grows to a height of about 35 cm...
Modern sugar beets date back to mid-18th century Silesia where Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, subsidised experiments aimed at processes for sugar extraction. In 1747, Andreas Marggraf isolated sugar from beetroots and found them at concentrations of 1.3–1.6%. He also demonstrated that the sugar that could be extracted from beets was identical to that produced from cane. His student, Franz Karl Achard, evaluated 23 varieties of mangelwurzel for sugar content and selected a local strain from Halberstadt in modern-day Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Moritz Baron von Koppy and his son further selected from this strain for white, conical tubers. The selection was named weiße schlesische Zuckerrübe, meaning white Silesian sugar beet, and boasted about a 6% sugar content.This selection is the progenitor of all modern sugar beets. A royal decree led to the first factory devoted to sugar extraction from beetroots being opened in Kunern, Silesia (now Konary, Poland) in 1801. The Silesian sugar...
The sugar beet, like sugarcane, needs a peculiar soil and a proper climate for its successful cultivation. The most important requirement is the soil must contain a large supply of nutrients, be rich in humus, and be able to contain a great deal of moisture. A certain amount of alkali is not necessarily detrimental, as sugar beets are not especially susceptible to injury by some alkali. The ground should be fairly level and well-drained, especially where irrigationis practiced. Generous crops can be grown in both sandy soil and heavy loams, but the ideal soil is a sandy loam, i.e., a mixture of organic matter, clay and sand. A subsoil of gravel, or the presence of hard-pan, is not desirable, as cultivation to a depth of from 12 to 15 inches (30.5 to 38.1 cm) is necessary to produce the best results. Climatic conditions, temperature, sunshine, rainfall and winds have an important bearing upon the success of sugar beet agriculture. A temperature ranging from 15 to 21 °C (59.0 to 69.8...
The world harvested 250,191,362 metric tons (246,200,000 long tons; 275,800,000 short tons) of sugar beets in 2013. The world's largest producer was the Russia, with a 42,321,161 metric tons (41,700,000 long tons; 46,700,000 short tons) harvest. The average yield of sugar beet crops worldwide was 58.2 tonnes per hectare. The most productive sugar beet farms in the world, in 2010, were in Chile, with a nationwide average yield of 87.3 tonnes per hectare. Imperial Valley (California)farmers have achieved yields of about 160 tonnes per hectare and over 26 tonnes sugar per hectare. Imperial Valley farms benefit from high intensities of incident sunlight and intensive use of irrigation and fertilizers. The sugar industry in the EU came under bureaucratic pressure in 2006 and ultimately resulted in the loss of 20,000 jobs, although many factories, as detailed in a later 2010 EU audit, were found to have been mistakenly shut down, as they were profitable without government intervention.Wes...
In 1935, the inputs required to process 1 short ton (2,000.00 lb; 907.18 kg) of beets to sugar was outlined as follows: 1. 80 pounds (36 kg) limestone 2. 250 pounds (110 kg) coke (to convert limestone to quicklime) 3. 2,500 US gallons (9,500 l; 2,100 imp gal) water
Sugar beets are an important part of a crop rotationcycle. Sugar beet plants are susceptible to Rhizomania ("root madness"), which turns the bulbous tap root into many small roots, making the crop economically unprocessable. Strict controls are enforced in European countries to prevent the spread, but it is already present in some areas. It is also susceptible to both the beet leaf curl virus, which causes crinkling and stunting of the leaves and beet yellows virus. Continual research looks for varieties with resistance, as well as increased sugar yield. Sugar beet breeding research in the United States is most prominently conducted at various USDA Agricultural Research Stations, including one in Fort Collins, Colorado, headed by Linda Hanson and Leonard Panella; one in Fargo, North Dakota, headed by John Wieland; and one at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan, headed by J. Mitchell McGrath. Other economically important members of the subfamily Chenopodioideae: 1. Be...
The sugar beet genome has been sequenced and two reference genome sequences have already been generated. The genome size of the sugar beet is approximately 731 Megabases, and sugar beet DNA is packaged in 18 metacentric chromosomes (2n=2x=18). All sugar beet centromeres are made up of a single satellite DNA family and centromere-specific LTR retrotransposons.More than 60% of sugar beet's DNA is repetitive, mostly distributed in a dispersed way along the chromosomes. Crop wild beet populations (B. vulgaris ssp. maritima) have been sequenced as well, allowing for identification of the resistance gene Rz2 in the wild progenitor. Rz2confers resistance to rhizomania, commonly known as the sugar beet root madness disease.Guardian (UK)article on how sugar beet can be used for fuelSugar beet culture in the northern Great Plains area hosted by the University of North Texas Government Documents DepartmentUS court bans GM sugar beet: Cultivation to take place under controlled conditions? Archived 2010-12-13 at the Wayback Machine
The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), also known as the Colorado beetle, the ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle, or the potato bug, is a major pest of potato crops. It is about 10 mm ( 3 ⁄ 8 in) long, with a bright yellow/orange body and five bold brown stripes along the length of each of its elytra .
- Belgium – Netherlands
- India – Bangladesh
- France – Netherlands
- Finland - Sweden
- Egypt – Sudan
- USA – Canada
- UAE – Oman
- USA - Russia
The Belgian exclave of Baarle-Hartog is split into 24 different parcels of land, all of which are surrounded by the Netherlands, and some of which are inside the Dutch town of Baarle-Nassau. This also leads to parts of Baarle-Nassau technically being Dutch exclaves within the Belgian exclave, and if you try to make sense of it all, you're just going to give yourself a headache. The ridiculous splodge of pointless borders is down to centuries of land trading between local lords and dukes. Nowadays, you can sit on a café terrace with the border running past your chair, see houses straddling the two countries and watch Dutchmen flock to the Belgian side to buy fireworks. The laws, it seems, are more lax in Belgium.
Similar to Baarle-Hartog/ Baarle-Nassau, the border between India's Cooch Behar district and Bangladesh is an unholy mess of exclaves. So there are 92 separate bits of Bangladesh inside Indian territory, and 106 bits of India inside Bangladeshi territory. There was a brief victory for common sense in August 2015, when the 1.7 acre patch of land called Dahala Khagrabari was ceded to Bangladesh. Before then, it was Indian territory, surrounded by Bangladeshi territory, which in turn was surrounded by Indian territory that was surrounded by mainland Bangladesh. And breathe…
Yes, there is a border between these seemingly separated European nations – it just happens to be in the Caribbean. The tiddly island of Sint Maarten/ St Martin is largely famous for the beach that jumbo jets fly over perilously low on the way into Princess Juliana International Airport. The southern half – Sint Maarten – is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, while northern St Martin is regarded as an integral part of France. The oddities of the divide ensure that Captain Oliver's Hotel (captainolivershotel.com) in Oyster Pond technically straddles the border – you can sleep on the Dutch side, but the restaurant's on the French side.
Märket barely deserves describing as an island – it's a 3.3 hectare patch of rock in the Baltic Sea. Yet Finland and Sweden have managed to divide it between themselves. Even more ludicrously, in 1985, they had to alter the border into a weird zigzag. This was due to the lighthouse, which the Finns and the Russians built in the 19th century on the highest point. This turned out to be on Swedish land, so the Finns ceded an equally large chunk of their patch to make everyone happy.
Two separate maps drawn up by British colonial administrators have led to a dispute between Egypt and Sudan over the Hala'ib Triangle. It's in the south-east of Egypt (which has de facto control) or north-east of Sudan, depending on your perspective. The truly weird thing about this border dispute, however, is what lies just to the south-west of it – a barren, nigh on useless 2,060 square kilometre patch of land called Bir Tawil. For either Sudan or Egypt to claim it would mean ceding the far more resource-rich Hala'ib Triangle – it'd be admitting that the other side's chosen map was the valid one – so neither does. It's the only unclaimed piece of land on earth.
The lakes sandwiched between the US and Canada throw up a series of eccentric borders. From Detroit, for example, you can head directly south into Canada. But the strangest patch is Minnesota's Northwest Angle, an American exclave sitting awkwardly at the edge of Manitoba, and cut off from the rest of Minnesota by the Lake of the Woods. In winter, when the lake ices over, it's possible to drive there without crossing the border. Anyone crossing the border is expected to contact Customs by phone just before doing so. The border runs to the most north-westerly point of the lake, then jags south before running south along the 49th Parallel. The long, boring story about how the map got drawn like that, unsurprisingly, involves cartographical bodges by British colonialists…
There are plenty of little idiosyncrasies along the Hajar Mountains between the UAE and Oman, while Oman's Musandam Peninsula is completely cut off from the rest of the country. But the most absurd bit is the exclave of Madha, which is entirely surrounded by the Emirates. Yet inside Madha, like the hole in a doughnut, in the village of Nawha – which is part of the Sharjah Emirate. This mess dates back to the 1940s, when everything was tribal in these parts and map boundaries didn't really matter all that much. Each village was asked which tribe they'd prefer to align with, and Madha decided to throw its lot in with the Sultan of Oman.
Just 3.8km separate Little Diomede – inhabited by around 130 doughty Alaskans – and Big Diomede – home only to Russian military men who have drawn the short straw posting. But within that 3.8km is the international border, and the International Date Line. So there's a 21 hour time difference, and the citizens of Little Diomede can look across to tomorrow. The Bering Strait surrounds the islands, and although the gap between them ices over in winter, trying to get across by foot is an excellent way to get shot at. See also: The strange, empty corners of Australia's state borders See also: The world's smallest countries and why you should visit them
Jan 06, 2016 · The 300 hectare maze of jumbled up walls was so confusing for outsiders that the Prussian army went around Montreuil during the siege of Paris in 1870. Peaches are native to France’s Mediterranean regions, but Montreuil produced up to 17 million fruits per year, renowned for their quality.