Henry II (French: Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536.
- Early years
Henry was born in the royal Château de...
Henry's reign was marked by the persecution of Protestants,...
- Patent innovation
Henry II introduced the concept of publishing the...
Henry II was an avid hunter and a participant in jousts and...
- Early years
Henry II of France (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559) was a King of France and a member of the house of Valois. Henry was crowned King in Rheims, France, on July 25, 1547. Birth. Henry was born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, on March 31, 1519. His parents were Francis I of France and Claude of France. Marriage
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henry II of France.: Pages in category "Henry II of France" The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total.
Henry II of France. Henry's father was Francis I of France, the patron of Leonardo da Vinci and a member of the Valois-Angoulême branch of the House of Valois.His maternal grandfather was Louis XII of France, the conqueror of the Neapolitan Kingdom of Naples and the Duchy of Milan.
- Early Years
- Patent Innovation
- External Links
Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of King Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany, and a second cousin of her husband). His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by the forces of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and held prisoner in Spain. To obtain his release, it was agreed that Henry and his older brother be sent to Spain in his place.They remained in captivity for over four years. Henry married Catherine de' Medici, a member of the ruling family of Florence, on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old. At this time, his elder brother was alive and there was little prospect of Henry coming to the throne. The following year, he became romantically involved with a thirty-five-year-old widow, Diane de Poitiers. Henry and Diane had always been very close: the young lady had fondly embraced Henry on the day he...
Attitude towards Protestants
Henry's reign was marked by the persecution of Protestants, mainly Calvinists known as Huguenots. Henry II severely punished them, particularly the ministers, for example by burning at the stakeor cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies. Henry II was made a Knight of the Garterin April 1551. The Edict of Châteaubriant (27 June 1551) called upon the civil and ecclesiastical courts to detect and punish all heretics and placed severe restrictions on Huguenots...
Italian War of 1551–1559
The Eighth Italian War of 1551–1559, sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War, began when Henry declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. Persecution of Protestants at home did not prevent Henry II from becoming allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552. Simultaneously, the continuation of his father's...
Henry II introduced the concept of publishing the description of an invention in the form of a patent. The idea was to require an inventor to disclose his invention in exchange for monopoly rights to the patent. The description is called a patent "specification". The first patent specification was submitted by the inventor Abel Foullon for "Usaige & Description de l'holmetre" (a type of rangefinder). Publication was delayed until after the patent expired in 1561.
Henry II was an avid hunter and a participant in jousts and tournaments. On 30 June 1559, a tournament was held near Place des Vosges to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis with his longtime enemies, the Habsburgs of Austria, and to celebrate the marriage of his daughter Elisabeth of Valois to King Philip II of Spain. During a jousting match, King Henry, wearing the colors of his mistress Diane de Poitiers, was wounded in the eye by a fragment of the splintered lance of Gabriel Montgomery, captain of the King's Scottish Guard. Despite the efforts of royal surgeon Ambroise Paré, the king's eye and brain damage, which, untreated, led to his death by sepsis on 10 July 1559. He was buried in a cadaver tomb in Saint Denis Basilica. Henry's death played a significant role in the decline of jousting as a sport, particularly in France. As Henry lay dying, Queen Catherine limited access to his bedside and denied his mistress Diane d...
Catherine de' Medici bore 10 of Henry's children: (See Children of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici) 1. Francis II, born 19 January 1544, who married Mary, Queen of Scots 2. Elizabeth of France, born 2 April 1545, who married Philip II, King of Spain 3. Claude, born 12 November 1547, who married Charles III, Duke of Lorraine 4. Louis, Duke of Orléans, born 3 February 1549, died 24 October 1550 5. Charles IX, born 27 June 1550, died 30 May 1574 6. Henry III, born 19 September 1551, also briefly King of Poland 7. Margaret, born 14 May 1553, who married Henry III, King of Navarre 8. Hercules, born 18 March 1555, later known as Francis, Duke of Alençon and Anjou 9. Victoria, born 24 June 1556, died 17 August 1556 10. Joan, stillborn 24 June 1556 Henry II also had three illegitimate children: 1. By Filippa Duci: 1. Diane, duchesse d'Angoulême (1538–1619). At the age of fourteen, she married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro,who died in battle in 1553. Her second marriage...
Henri or Henry has had three notable portrayals on the screen. He was played by a young Roger Moore in the 1956 film Diane, opposite Lana Turner in the title role and Marisa Pavan as Catherine de Medici. In the 1998 film Ever After, the Prince Charming figure, portrayed by Dougray Scott, shares his name with the historical monarch. In the 2013 CW series Reign he is played by Alan van Sprang.Royal MonogramDetail from portrait plaque, enamel and gilding on copperHenry II, here standing on an oriental carpet, continued the policy of Franco-Ottoman alliance of his father Francis I. Painting by François Clouet.Coin of Henry II, 1547Anselme de Sainte-Marie, Père (1726). Histoire généalogique et chronologique de la maison royale de France [Genealogical and chronological history of the royal house of France] (in French). 1(3rd e...Baumgartner, Frederic J (1988). Henry II, King of France, 1547–1559. Duke University Press.Inalcik, Halil (1995). "The Heyday and Decline of the Ottoman Empire". In Holt, P.M.; Lambton, Ann Katherine Swynford; Lewis, Bernard (eds.). The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 1A. Cambridge Univ...Felix, Regina R.; Juall, Scott D., eds. (2016). Cultural Exchanges Between Brazil and France. Purdue University Press.Henry II of France History TodayV.59 I9.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 until his death in 1189. He was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. King Louis VII of France made him Duke of Normandy in 1150.
- Early years
- Third Crusade
- Conflict with England, Flanders and the Holy Roman Empire
- Marital problems
- Appearance and personality
Philip II, byname Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France". The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands...
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165, the son of Louis VII and Adela of Champagne. He was nicknamed Dieudonné since he was the first born son, arriving late in his father's life. Louis intended to make Philip co-ruler with him as soon as possible, in accordance with the traditions of the House of Capet, but these plans were delayed when Philip became ill after a hunting trip. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philip's recovery and was told that his
Philip travelled to the Holy Land to participate in the Third Crusade of 1189–1192 with King Richard I of England and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. His army left Vézelay on 4 July 1190. At first, the French and English crusaders travelled together, but the armies split at Lyon, after Richard decided to go by sea from Marseille, whereas Philip took the overland route through the Alps to Genoa. The French and English armies were reunited in Messina, where they wintered ...
The immediate cause of Philip's conflict with Richard the Lionheart stemmed from Richard's decision to break his betrothal with Philip's sister Alys at Messina in 1191. Some of Alys's dowry that had been given over to Richard during their engagement was part of the territory of V
In May 1200, Philip signed the Treaty of Le Goulet with Richard's successor John Lackland. The treaty was meant to bring peace to Normandy by settling the issue of its much-reduced boundaries. The terms of John's vassalage were not only for Normandy, but also for Anjou, Maine, an
In 1208, Philip of Swabia, the successful candidate to assume the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, was assassinated. As a result, the imperial crown was given to his rival Otto IV, the nephew of King John. Otto, prior to his accession, had promised to help John recover his lost p
After the early death of Isabella of Hainaut in childbirth in 1190, Philip decided to marry again. On 15 August 1193, he married Ingeborg, daughter of King Valdemar I of Denmark, receiving 10,000 marks of silver as a dowry. Philip met her at Amiens on 14 August 1193 and they were married that same day. At the feast of Assumption of the virgin, Archbishop Guillaume of Reims crowned both Philip and Ingeborg. During the ceremony, Philip was pale, nervous, and could not wait for the ceremony to end.
The only known description of Philip describes him as "a handsome, strapping fellow, bald but with a cheerful face of ruddy complexion, and a temperament much inclined towards good-living, wine, and women. He was generous to his friends, stingy towards those who displeased him, well-versed in the art of stratagem, orthodox in belief, prudent and stubborn in his resolves. He made judgements with great speed and exactitude. Fortune's favorite, fearful for his life, easily excited and easily placat
- Early life
- King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1573–1575)
- French reign (1575–1589)
Henry III was King of France from 1574 until his death in 1589 as well as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1573 to 1575. As the fourth son of King Henry II of France, he was not expected to inherit the French throne and thus was a good candidate for the vacant throne of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, where he was elected monarch in 1573. During his brief rule, he signed the Henrician Articles into law, recognizing the Polish nobility's right to freely elect their...
Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the fourth son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. He was a grandson of Francis I of France and Claude of France. His older brothers were Francis II of France, Charles IX of France, and Louis of Valois. He was ...
Henry favourite interests were hunting and riding. Although he was fond of fencing and skilled in it, he preferred to indulge his tastes for the arts and reading. These predilections were attributed to his Italian mother. At one point in his youth Henry showed a tendency towards
Reports that Henry engaged in same-sex relations with his court favourites, known as the mignons, date back to his own time. He was known to have enjoyed intense relationships with them. The scholar Louis Crompton maintains that all of the contemporary rumours were true. Some mod
Following the death of the Polish ruler Sigismund II Augustus on 7 July 1572, Jean de Monluc was sent as the French envoy to Poland to negotiate the election of Henry to the Polish throne in exchange for military support against Russia, diplomatic assistance in dealing with the Ottoman Empire, and financial subsidies. On 16 May 1573, Polish nobles chose Henry as the first elected monarch of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Lithuanian nobles boycotted this election, however, and it ...
Henry was crowned king of France on 13 February 1575 at Reims Cathedral. Although he was expected to produce an heir after he married Louise of Lorraine, age 21, on 14 February 1575, no issue resulted from their union. In 1576, Henry signed the Edict of Beaulieu, which granted many concessions to the Huguenots. His action resulted in the Catholic activist Henry I, Duke of Guise, forming the Catholic League. After much posturing and negotiations, Henry was forced to rescind most of the concession
Henry's coat of arms, showing his dual status as King of France and lifelong King of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth
- He Was A Charmed Child. Before he was Henry II of France, he was the little baby Henry, Duke of Orleans, born to the legendary King Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany.
- His Dad Had Enemies. Henry was born in a time of turmoil. His father, King Francis I, also known as King Francis the Big Nose for pretty self-explanatory reasons, spent years carrying on a very expensive and ultimately pointless conflict with Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
- His Father Sold Him Out. After the catastrophic Battle of Pavia, King Francis found himself a prisoner in Spain. Desperate to escape back to France, Francis made a truly heartless deal with Charles V. He negotiated his own release…in return for his two sons, Henry and Henry’s older brother.
- He Was Prisoner Prince. Henry and his older brother weren’t initially supposed to stay in Spain for very long, but clearly they weren’t very high on their dad’s list of priorities.
Henry II of France was a monarch who ruled France from 1547 to 1559. During his reign, he hugely suppressed the Protestant movement. He was born in the royal Chateau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. His father was King Francis I, who was captured a few years after his birth.
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