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  1. Henry VI of England - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England

    Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months upon his father's death, and succeeded to the French throne on the death of his maternal grandfather, Charles VI, shortly afterwards.

  2. Henry VI | Biography & Facts | Britannica

    www.britannica.com/.../Henry-VI-king-of-England

    Henry VI, king of England from 1422 to 1461 and from 1470 to 1471, a pious and studious recluse whose incapacity for government was one of the causes of the Wars of the Roses. Learn more about his life, relationships, and accomplishments in this article.

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  3. Henry VI of England - Ancient History Encyclopedia

    www.ancient.eu/Henry_VI_of_England
    • Succession
    • A French Revival
    • Consequences of Defeat
    • Wars of The Roses
    • Richard, Duke of York
    • Henry Deposed
    • Reinstated - The ‘Readeption’
    • Death & Successors

    Henry was born on 6 December 1421 CE in Windsor Castle, the son of Henry V of England and Catherine of Valois (l. 1401 - c. 1437 CE), the daughter of Charles VI of France. The reign of Henry’s father was short but brilliant. Pressing his claim to the French throne, which had started with Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE), Henry V had won a famous victory against a French army at the Battle of Agincourt in October 1415 CE and then conquered Normandy between 1417 and 1419 CE. This was to be the peak of English fortunes during the on-off conflict between the two countries known to history as the Hundred Years’ War. The victories allowed Henry V to sign the 1420 CE treaty of Troyes with Charles VI of France (r. 1380-1422 CE) which made Henry the French king’s heir while the blood heir, the Dauphin Charles, was disinherited. All this happened while France was split between two rival factions: the Burgundians and the Armagnacs. Henry V died, probably of dysentery on 31 August 1422 C...

    All the big battles of the Hundred Years’ War had been won by the English but taking and then controlling French territory was another matter. To keep large armies in the field was hugely expensive and beyond the means of the English treasury to maintain. Neither was Charles, the Dauphin, prepared to sit idly and watch his inheritance be handed over to the English. Thirdly, the very character of England’s king was, as he reached maturity, about to become a serious disadvantage. The young Henry was tall, well-educated, fluent in English and French, and he liked hunting, but there were serious flaws in his character. Here, the historian N. Saul summarises the common view of Henry VI by historians past and present: Henry and his ruling council had continued to press his family’s claim for the French throne but the French fightback began in 1429 CE when an army led by Joan of Arc in 1429 CE relieved the siege of Orleans. This permitted the Dauphin to be crowned Charles VII of France in...

    Meanwhile, the English Parliament and nobles were concerned at the huge cost of the war and the distinct lack of territorial gains. Henry VI was now ruling alone without his regents, but his aversion to warfareproved unpopular and his choice of associates even more so, especially William de la Pole, the Earl of Suffolk. The earl did, however, negotiate a five-year truce with France from 1444 CE. The price to pay for peace was the loss of Maine and, on 22 April 1445 CE, the marriage of Henry to Margaret of Anjou (d. 1482 CE), niece of Charles VII. As both actions failed to end the war, Henry’s popularity sank even lower as pro-war nobles resented his capitulation and anti-war nobles lamented the continuance of a seemingly never-ending and costly war. The obvious influence of the queen on her weak-willed husband was yet another bone of contention amongst the court officials. There was even a rebellion by commoners and local dignitaries led by the former soldier Jack Cade in 1450 CE wh...

    In 1453 CE, on top of the defeats in France, or perhaps because of them, Henry suffered his first bout of insanity. The episode lasted 17 months during which the king understood nothing of what was said to him or even recognised anybody. The condition may have been inherited from his maternal grandfather Charles VI of France. As a result of the king’s incapacity, his poor record in the war with France, and the corruption in the royal court, Richard, the Duke of York (1411-1460 CE) was made the Protector of the Realm in March 1454 CE. The Duke and the Earl of Somerset were soon at odds as each tried to get themselves nominated as Henry’s heir, and this was the start of what became known as the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE). The Duke of York was the great-grandson of Edward III and the nephew of the Earl of March who himself had claimed he was the legitimate heir to Richard II of England (r. 1377-1399 CE). The Earl of Somerset was also a descendant of Edward III but through that ki...

    In 1455 CE the Duke of York imprisoned the Earl of Somerset in the Tower of London but he was later released by a somewhat-recovered king Henry. Somerset was then killed at the Battle of St. Albans on 22 May 1455 CE by an army led by an outraged Duke Richard. Even the king was struck by an arrow in the neck during the battle and only just fled the scene. It was a mere skirmish but it was the first battle of the Wars of the Roses. Richard, realising the king could easily be manipulated, then swore loyalty to Henry who managed, on 25 March 1458 CE (‘Loveday’) to reconcile the Yorkists and Lancastrians and even oblige them to walk hand-in-hand in a procession in London. However, the peace did not last long and Richard still faced a formidable obstacle to his ambitions in the form of the queen. Queen Margaret hated Richard so intensely she even led an army against the duke, defeating him at his headquarters in Ludlow at the Battle of Ludford Bridge on 12 October 1459 CE. The Duke of Yor...

    In 1460 CE the fortunes were reversed, and a Yorkist army led by Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick (1428-71 CE) and Richard’s son Edward, Earl of March, defeated Queen Margaret’s army at Northampton on 10 July and then captured King Henry. Richard, the Duke of York returned from Ireland and persuaded Henry, who was now in the Tower of London, to name him as the official heir to the throne, a decision ratified by the Act of Accord of 24 October. However, at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460 CE the Duke of York was killed and his army defeated by Henry VI loyalists led, once again, by the queen. Margaret ensured that Richard’s head was displayed on a pike at Micklegate in York, adding a paper crown to remind everyone he had been a mere usurper. On 17 February 1461 CE another Yorkist army, led by the Earl of Warwick, was defeated at St. Albans, and Henry was rescued from his captivity. The Wars of the Roses were not over yet, though. Edward, the Duke of York’s son, backed...

    While Queen Margaret and Prince Edward made it from Scotland to the greater safety of France, Henry VI was captured in Lancashire in July 1465 CE and imprisoned in the Tower of London again, where he was at least allowed to keep his pet dog and sparrow. There was to be another twist in the Roses War yet. When the Earl of Warwick and King Edward quarrelled over the latter’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, Warwick joined forces with Queen Margaret and defeated King Edward’s army at Northampton in the Battle of Edgecote Moor (26 July 1469 CE). Warwick imprisoned Edward IV in his castle at Middleham, but Edward managed to escape to Burgundy. Meanwhile, Henry VI was briefly reinstated as king on 11 April 1470 CE (the ‘Readeption’) and he had his second English coronation, and third overall, in October of that year, this time in Saint Paul’s Cathedral. Edward IV was not to be deprived, though, and, backed by an Anglo-Dutch army, he won the Battle of Barnet on 14 April 1471 CE against his...

    Henry, deposed for a second time, also found himself a prisoner yet again. A few weeks later, on 21 May 1471 CE, the ex-king, now aged 49, was stabbed to death in the Tower of London according to traditional accounts, dead from ‘displeasure and melancholy’ according to King Edward’s official announcement, and from a bashed skull according to a 1910 CE forensic examination. The dead king’s body was put on display for any doubters to see and then buried at Chertsey Abbey and later moved to Windsor Castle. Queen Margaret was imprisoned but was eventually released on payment of a ransom by her father the King of Sicily, and she lived the rest of her days in her native France. Edward IV would reign until his death in 1483 CE, after which his son Edward V of England briefly became king from April to June of that year. Edward V was killed even before he had a chance to be crowned, most likely by his uncle Richard, the Duke of Gloucester in the Tower of London along with his younger brother...

    • Mark Cartwright
  4. BBC - History - King Henry VI

    www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/henry_vi_king.shtml

    Henry was born on 6 December 1421 at Windsor Castle. He was only nine months old when he succeeded his father, Henry V. He was crowned king of England in 1429 and, as result of his father's ...

  5. King Henry VI of Lancaster, King of England (1421 - 1471 ...

    www.geni.com/people/Henry-VI-of-England/...

    Jan 22, 2019 · "Henry VI (6 December 1421 – 21 May 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453. Until 1437, his realm was governed by regents.

  6. Henry VI - English Monarchs

    www.englishmonarchs.co.uk/plantagenet_11.htm
    • Henry Vi's Minority
    • Personal Rule
    • Contemporary Description of Henry
    • The Wars of The Roses
    • The Restoration of Henry Vi
    • The Fate of Margaret of Anjou
    • The Murder of Henry Vi

    The last king of the Lancastrian dynasty, Henry VI was born at Windsor Castle on 6th December, 1421 the son of Henry V and Catherine of Valois, daughter of Charles VI of France. Henry became King of England in his cradle, he was barely nine months old when his famous father, Henry V, died of dysentry on campaign in France. Two months later he became King of France also, on the death of his maternal grandfather, the mentally unstable Charles VI.During Henry's minority, the war in France had be...

    According to the terms of a peace agreement with France, Henry married Margaret of Anjou, daughter of Rene, Duke of Anjou and titular King of Jerusalem and Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. Margaret was also the niece of the French King, Charles VII. The match was unpopular amongst disaffected elements in England. Margaret, unlike her husband, was a strong willed character, who was unyielding and belligerent, none of which augured well for her future in England.Henry himself was a gentle, devout...

    'He was a man of pure simplicity of mind, truthful almost to a fault. He never made a promise he did not keep, never knowingly did an injury to anyone. Rectitude and justice ruled his conduct in all public affairs. Devout himself, he sought to cherish a love for religion in others. He would exhort his visitors, particularly the young, to pursue virtue and eschew evil. He considered sports and the pleasures of the world as frivolous, and devoted his leisure to reading the scriptures and the ol...

    In 1453, at the age of 32, Henry VI began to exhibit signs of serious mental illness. By means of a \\"sudden fright\\" he entered into a trance-like state reacting to and recognising no one. Catatonic schizophrenia or depressive stupor have been suggested as a likely diagnosis. This was probably an inheritance from his maternal grandfather, Charles VI of France, who himself suffered from bouts of schizophrenia, which is reported to have come on suddenly in 1392 when he was then aged 24, and into...

    Edward IV shocked the nobility when he announced he had been secretly married to Elizabeth Woodville, the beautiful but penniless widow of a Lancastrian knight. The new King had hoped to make the highly attractive Elizabeth his mistress, but she held out for marriage and Edward eventually succumbed to her charms. The old established nobility, and in particular, Warwick, were alienated by the meteoric advancement of the new Queen's large and needy family. In 1470, Warwick, later referred to as...

    Queen Margaret was defeated at last by the death of the son she had fought so long and hard for. She was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Her beloved son's widow, Anne Neville, later married one of his suspected killers, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, through this marriage, Gloucester eventually obtained much of Warwick's vast estates.Margaret's aging but ebullient father, Rene of Anjou, remained unconcerned about his daughter's fate, having recently remarried, he was preoccupied with his new...

    Henry VI met his death in the Tower of London, on the night of the Vigil of the Ascension, 21st -22nd May, 1471. The demise of his son at Tewkesbury had sealed his fate. While Edward of Lancaster still lived, he rendered the removal of Henry pointless.The Yorkist version of his end, that he died of \\"pure melancholy and displeasure\\" on hearing on of his son's death was not much accepted, even at the time. His death so soon after that of his son seems unlikely to have been a coincidence.The maj...

  7. Henry VI: Facts About His Life, Death, Reign, Mysterious ...

    www.historyextra.com/period/plantagenet/king...
    • When Henry’s wife, Margaret of Anjou, visited the king’s bedroom, they were sometimes joined by “trusted attendants” Pious, simple and puritan. This is how Henry VI is often described by historians and scholars.
    • He was more popular after he died than when he was alive. Henry VI was not a vengeful king – if anything, he was quite the opposite. He once ordered a deceased traitor’s impaled ‘quarter’ to be taken down, commenting: “I will not have any Christian man so cruelly handled for my sake.”
    • He experienced a mysterious illness that lasted 18 months. In August 1453, Henry VI fell into an inertia that lasted 18 months. Some historians believe he was suffering from catatonic schizophrenia, a condition characterised by symptoms including stupor, catalepsy (loss of consciousness) and mutism.
    • He was the youngest person to become king of England – and the first (and only) English monarch to be crowned king of France. Henry became king of England on 1 September 1422, at nine months of age, following the death of his father, Henry V. A regency council governed the country until 1437, when Henry was considered old enough to rule.
  8. Henry VI of England: The Incompetent King - The European ...

    theeuropeanmiddleages.com/england/henry-vi-of...

    Sep 27, 2019 · Henry VI was restored to his kingship by the Lancastrians on October 31, 1470, but the alliance with Warwick was short-lived. On April 14, 1472, Warwick was killed in battle by Yorkist forces. Desperate, Margaret led what remained of the Lancastrian army into a final battle against the Yorkists on May 4, 1471.

  9. The miracle of Henry VI: how the weak medieval king became a ...

    www.historyextra.com/period/medieval/king-henry...

    Apr 25, 2014 · The life and afterlife of Henry VI. 1422: Henry V’s son becomes king of England and France as Henry VI. The new king is less than a year old. 1431: In May, the English burn at the stake Joan of Arc, who had taken up arms against their occupation of France. Later that year, Henry is crowned king of France in Paris.

  10. The King’s great illness – KING HENRY VI

    www.henrysixth.com/?page_id=55

    A Chronicle of King Henry VI. 1422-1439; 1440-1459; 1460-1471; The Henry VI Society; General. The Royal Coat-of-Arms; The King’s residences; BOOKS; The Coinage of Henry VI; Richard II, Henry IV, and the Yorkist Claim; The Kings’ Screen in York Minster

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