Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death. He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
Henry VII, also called (1457–85) Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, (born January 28, 1457, Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales—died April 21, 1509, Richmond, Surrey, England), king of England (1485–1509), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty.
Henry VII (r. 1485-1509) Henry VII was the founder of the Tudor dynasty, unifying the warring factions in the Wars of the Roses. Although supported by Lancastrians and Yorkists alienated by Richard III's deposition of his nephew, Edward V, Henry VII's first task was to secure his position.
Jul 16, 2020 · King Henry VIII (1491-1547) ruled England for 36 years, presiding over sweeping changes that brought his nation into the Protestant Reformation. He famously married a series of six wives in his...
- The Lancastrian Claim
- Battle of Bosworth
- The Great Pretenders
- Henry's Financial Policies
- Spending: Palaces & Weddings
- Death & Successor
Richard III was one of England’s most unpopular kings, and he was accused of being involved in the murder of the two sons of his brother Edward IV of England (r. 1461-70 & 1471-83 CE) who disappeared from the Tower of London. Richard, having eliminated his nephews, made himself king in 1483 CE. His reign would be short and troubled; it was brought to an end by the rise of Henry Tudor, at the time better known as Henry, Earl of Richmond. Henry was born on 28 January 1457 CE in Pembroke Castle, the son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond (l. 1430-1456 CE). Henry was the grandson of the Welsh courtier Owen Tudor (c. 1400-1461 CE) and Catherine of Valois (l. 1401 - c. 1437 CE), the daughter of Charles VI of France (r. 1380-1422 CE), former wife of Henry V of England (r. 1413-1422 CE) and mother of Henry VI of England (r. 1422-61 & 1470-71 CE). Henry Tudor’s mother was Margaret Beaufort (l. c. 1441-1509 CE), the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and son of Edward III...
The Lancastrian cause was given a dramatic boost when Richard III’s son and heir, Edward, died on 9 April 1484 CE. On 8 August 1485 CE, the Wars of the Roses reached boiling point when Henry Tudor landed with an army of French mercenaries at Milford Haven in South Wales, a force perhaps no bigger than 5,000 men. Henry’s army swelled in numbers as it marched to face the king’s army at Bosworth Field in Leicestershire on 22 August 1485 CE. Richard, although commanding an army of some 8,000-12,000 men, was, at the last moment, deserted by some of his key allies, and the Earl of Northumberland even refused to engage his troops until he had a clear idea which side was going to win the day. Nevertheless, the king fought bravely and perhaps a little foolishly in his efforts to kill Henry Tudor with his own sword. Richard, although managing to strike down Henry’s standard-bearer, had his horse cut from under him, and the king was killed. The victorious Henry Tudor, according to legend, was...
The War of the Roses might have ended according to the history books but King Henry still had plenty of unrest in his realm. His first problem was that he had few loyal followers, coming as he did from years of exile. This situation had its advantages as the king formed the Privy Chamber and Council of close advisors, allowing him to keep a tight personal hold on the reigns of power and physically limiting access to the royal person. Specialised committees, mostly populated with lawyers, were set the task of ruling the kingdom, all personally supervised by the king. Of the outsiders of the king’s inner circle, the most dangerous were two Yorkists pretenders/imposters to the throne. The first was a joiner’s son, Lambert Simnel (c. 1475 - c. 1535 CE) who claimed he was the Earl of Warwick (nephew of Richard III), an unfortunate boast as the king already had the real earl safely locked up in the Tower of London. Simnel and his supporters were roundly beaten at the Battle of East Stoke...
Not only effective at getting rid of his rivals, Henry was an extremely efficient ruler in terms of finances. Through a mixture of taxes, feudal dues, rents, and fines, Henry was able to double state revenues during his reign. The latter tactic, that is, imposing fines, proved particularly lucrative as the king charged misdemeanours ranging from bad behaviour at court to possessing too many armed retainers. One fiendish financial strategy was to issue a penal bond (recognisance) to anyone already caught guilty of a financial misdemeanour or fine. If a person failed to meet any of his existing financial obligations, then under this second signed declaration, the king could confiscate their property and ruin them. Many nobles were kept under the king’s thumb in this way with a financial guillotine perpetually hovering over them. The number of nobles also went down as the new position of Surveyor of the King’s Wards sought out money that was owed the king and confiscated lands to bolst...
A tight hold on the state’s purse strings did not in any way put Henry off spending on his own projects and displaying his great love of pomp and pageantry, especially medieval tournaments. Royal residences received particular attention with Windsor Castle, the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey (notably the chapel that today bears his name), Richmond Palace and Greenwich Palace all being built or refurbished. The weddings of the king’s children were another area of lavish spending; these included the marriage of the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragonto Henry (b. 1491 CE) who became heir when his older brother Arthur died in 1502 CE aged just 15. The king suffered another tragic blow the next year when Queen Elizabeth died during childbirth aged 37. This marked the decline of the king who retreated to as much a life of solitude as being a monarch allowed. There was some positive news in the first years of the 16th century CE. The king's daughter Margaret (b. 1489 CE) became the Qu...
Henry VII died of ill health on 21 April 1509 CE at Richmond Palace in Surrey. The king was buried alongside his queen in Westminster Abbey, and their tomb was eventually encased in bronzesculpted by Pietro Torrigiano. Henry VII’s fiscal policies might have earned him a certain level of unpopularity - as evidenced by the execution of his two principal lawyers after the king’s own death - but he had set the ship of state on a sure course for future expansion and prosperity. He was succeeded by his eldest namesake son who, aged just 17, was crowned Henry VIII on 24 June 1509 CE. Henry VIII, inheriting a financially sound kingdom, was a young, athletic, and charismatic ruler who would become one of the great kings of English history. His reign would entertain future historians with his search for a male heir and six wives, and it would witness such momentous events as the formation of the Church of England.
- Mark Cartwright
Henry VII is crowned on the battlefield at Bosworth On 22nd August 1485 the two sides met at Bosworth, a small market town in Leicestershire, and a decisive victory was had by Henry. He was crowned on the battlefield as the new monarch, Henry VII.
- Henry VII Was The First Tudor King.
- He Died at Age 52.
- What Did Henry VII Die of?
- What Happened After His Death?
Born in 1457, to Margaret Beaufort and Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, Henry Tudor became, through his mother's side of the family, the leading claimant to the Lancastrian throne during the English civil war known as the War of the Roses. Having spent most of his young adulthood in exile in France to evade assassination plots against him, Henry finally won the throne at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, becoming the first king of the Tudor dynasty at the age of 28. After ascending the thr...
Henry VII fell ill at some time in late 1508, and in February of 1509 travelled to Richmond Palace, south of London. While it's not clear if he was aware of severity of his health issues, he did reportedly stop receiving visitors on state business after his move and seems to have undergone a steady decline. By late April, it was obvious to those close to the king that death was approaching and Henry received Sacraments in keeping with his Catholic faith. According to writings by John Fisher,...
Evidence from the time suggests that Henry VII died of tuberculosis. Particularly considering the long, wasting trajectory of the disease, this is the generally accepted conclusion by scholars, however, as is the case with many historical deaths, limited concrete evidence remains.
Though in the later years of his life Henry VII had seemed conflicted about the possibility of his remaining son, Henry VIII, marrying Catherine of Aragon, the widow of Prince Arthur, (the king had sought a papal dispensation to allow Henry VIII to take Catherine as a bride—they were, in the eyes of the Catholic church, brother and sister as a consequence of her marriage to Arthur—but had also explored the possibility of marrying Catherine himself) Henry VIII did go on to wed Catherine, makin...
- Death and legacy
- Later life
- Early years
- Later years
The union was both symbolic and necessary. Despite his victory at Bosworth, the exiled nobleman who took the name Henry VII needed the support of those sympathetic to the defeated Yorkist cause. He also needed the legitimacy of his wifes claim to the throne. He had spent years in exile and campaigned tirelessly to win support for his claim to the English throne. It had not been an easy task. In fact, it was only when Richard duke of York usurped the throne from his young nephew Edward (son and heir of Edward IV) that Henry Tudor became a viable candidate for king.
Henry Tudors claim to the throne was never based on ancestry alone. He knew, none better, that such a claim would be flimsy at best. His royal blood came from women his mother, Margaret Beaufort, was the granddaughter of John Beaufort (died 1410), the eldest of the bastard sons of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. Gaunts eldest legitimate son was the first Lancastrian king of England. The Beauforts were so named because Margarets grandfather had been born in Beaufort Castle in Champagne; his mother was Gaunts mistress and later became his third wife. After the marriage, their children were declared legitimate by an act of Parliament in 1397 (during Richard IIs reign). When their fellow kinsman Henry IV Bolingbroke came to the throne, he confirmed this act of legitimacy but added a stipulation that the Beauforts should never succeed to the English throne (1407). Certainly no act of government could alter the fact that the Beauforts had been born illegitimate; and Henry IVs declaration regarding the succession is equally ambivalent after all, what practical effect could it guarantee? The end result was that the Beauforts occupied an odd position in the English nobility and, taken together as a group, posed a unique threat to the security of the throne.
Margaret Beauforts father John succeeded to the earldom of Somerset in 1418 and, after a life of military embarrassment (including seventeen years in a French prison), he married Margaret Beauchamp, daughter of Sir John Beauchamp of Blestoe. A year after their marriage, John was created duke of Somerset. Margaret, his only child, was born on 31 May 1443; she never knew her father. John had led yet another disastrous military expedition to France and ended up dying in Dorset a few days before her first birthday. It was rumored that he committed suicide. Her mother, meanwhile, married again this time to Lionel, Lord Welles, and survived another four decades. Margaret, however, was the sole heir to the dukedom of Somerset and its vast holdings. Since she was a great heiress, she was betrothed while still a child to John de la Pole, the son and heir of Henry VIs chief minister, the marquess of Suffolk. A conspiracy followed which alleged that Suffolk was planning to place Margaret and his son on the throne if Henry VI died childless; there is no proof but it indicates how important Margarets royal blood was, even tainted with her grandfathers illegitimacy. Suffolk was murdered in May 1450 and in early 1453, the marriage between Margaret and John de la Pole was annulled. A child of ten, she was a pawn once more. Henry VI wanted to wed her to his half-brother Edmund Tudor so, at the age of twelve, she was married again. Her new husband was the earl of Richmond. His ancestry was even more colorful than her own. Edmund Tudor was the eldest son of a princess of France and Queen of England and her Welsh attendant. Catherine of Valois was the youngest daughter of Charles VI of France and Queen Isabelle. At the age of eighteen, Catherine had wed that great warrior-king Henry V. He was fifteen years her senior and, even in life, recognized as one of Englands greatest kings. His triumph at Agincourt in 1415 inspired one of Shakespeares greatest plays, Henry V, and led Charles VI to sue for peace. Charles promised that, upon his death, Henry would inherit the French throne; to show his good faith and secure Henrys claim, he was wed to Catherine. She was, by all accounts, quite beautiful and vivacious. They were married in May 1420 and, in December, made a triumphal entry into Paris. From there, they sailed to Dover and Catherine was crowned at Westminster Abbey in February 1421. She joined Henry on his public progress through England for a few months but, in June 1421, a year after their marriage, Henry departed again for France. He left knowing his wife was pregnant and, on 6 December 1421, she gave birth to their son, the future Henry VI, at Windsor. Henry V would never see his son. Catherine traveled to France without the child to visit Henry but he then left to besiege Meaux and Catherine went to her parents north of Paris. During the siege, Henry contracted dysentery and died at the chateaux of Vincennes on 31 August 1422. The glorious king of England and heir to the French throne had fallen victim to the scourge of armies everywhere. The origin of Catherine and Owens romance is obscure. Later chroniclers attributed it to drunkenness (at a ball, Owen was so drunk that he stumbled and fell into the queens lap) or voyeurism (the queen saw Owen bathing in a stream and was attracted to him; she secretly traded places with her maid and arranged to meet him in disguise; Owen was too passionate and attempted to kiss her; she pulled away and received a scratch on her cheek; the next evening, as he was serving her dinner, he saw the wound and was ashamed of his behavior; she forgave him, they fell in love and married.) Whatever the case, they were attracted to one another, fell in love, and married. The legitimacy of the union was never questioned (not even by Richard III when Henry Tudor positioned himself as claimant). Certainly the council was unhappy with her choice for the Welsh were regarded by many as barbarians but, in her choice, she showed good sense. The 1427 statute had stipulated that any man who married the queen without the kings permission would be subject to fines, imprisonment, and forfeiture of lands. By marrying a man who was simply a member of her household (perhaps the manager of some lands), Catherine effectively protected Owen from retribution. (No one knows the true nature of Owens work in the queens household but he probably functioned as a steward.) But Henry rarely saw his mother. A few months after his birth in 1457, she married a man named Henry Stafford. They lived in Lincolnshire and, later, Surrey, long distances from Pembrokeshire. Also, the fall of Pembroke Castle and Herberts purchase of her sons wardship were obstacles. But Margarets husband made peace with the new king around 1461 and, while her son was not allowed to return to her guardianship, she was allowed to visit and write to him.
His great achievements were not forgotten but, immediately after his death, confusion swept through England. Henry V had died, leaving behind a twenty-year-old widow and an infant son. On 21 October 1422, her father suddenly died, after suffering years of intermittent insanity. The infant Henry VI was now king of both England and France. Catherine, quite naturally, remained at her sons side, accompanying him to the various public and ceremonial appearances he made as a child. However, her presence was a novel problem in 15th century England a Dowager Queen who was remaining in England until her sons majority and would, in all likelihood, wish to marry again. She was, after all, still young and beautiful and contemporaries noted her energy and flirtatiousness. For the protector of the realm (Humphrey, duke of Gloucester) and the royal council, Catherines remarriage was a very real concern. Whomever she wed would become step-father to the king; understandably, they viewed such a man as a threat to their own positions of authority. Since they were unable to agree on whom would be allowed to court the queen, they passed a law in 1427 stating that no dowager queen could marry without the kings permission; furthermore, permission could only be granted once the king reached the age of discretion. Since Henry VI was only six years old in 1427, the council felt that they had effectively delayed any remarriage for some years at least until the king could no longer be influenced by a step-father. (In fairness to the council, there was no precedent for the problem Catherine of Valois presented; neither of the two queens of England who had outlived their spouses and married a second time King John and Richard IIs wives had remained in England. Also, no dowager queen since the twelfth century had married one of her husbands subjects.)
The council was also careful to keep Catherine under watch. From 1427 until about 1430 she and her entourage lived in Henry VIs household. In April 1430 she traveled with her son to Paris for his coronation as king of France. Her activities were thus restricted and watched. However, the council was not completely successful at isolating the eligible dowager queen and, around 1431, Catherine met a Welshman named Owen ap Maredudd ap Tudur. Their love affair and marriage resulted in four children, the eldest of whom was Henry VIIs father. So, once again, Henry Tudor inherited royal blood from a female.
In 1432 Owen was made an English citizen and in March 1434 Catherine gifted him with some lands of his own in Flintshire. They lived together in the countryside, away from court intrigues, for some years. During this time, he began to follow the English use of surnames and became known, however inaccurately, as Owen Tudor. The couple had four children three sons and a daughter, though the daughter died young. Their sons were named Edmund, Jasper, and Owen. The latter became a Benedictine monk while his two older brothers struggled to survive in an increasingly hostile England. On 3 January 1437 Catherine had died of an unspecified illness which had plagued her for some time. With her death, Owen lacked protection from the kings council. They were now determined to finally prosecute him for breaking the 1427 law. Owen appeared before the council and acquitted himself of all charges but, after his release, was arrested. He managed to escape Newgate Prison but was recaptured and sent to Windsor Castle in July 1438.
Eventually Owen would be released and pardoned (1440) and taken into his step-son Henry VIs household. In the years following Catherines death and Owens imprisonment, Edmund and Jasper Tudor were cared for by the abbess Katherine de la Pole, the earl of Suffolks sister. Around 1442, their half-brother Henry VI began to take an interest in their upbringing and they were brought to London. In 1452, it was decided that the two brothers, now teenagers, should be ennobled. Henry VI decided this out of both affection and politics. He knew he had to recognize his half-brothers in some public manner, making them an official part of the royal family; he also cared for them deeply. So on 23 November 1452, Edmund was created earl of Richmond and Jasper was created earl of Pembroke. They were now the premier earls of England and had precedence over all other laymen except dukes. They were also gifted with estates and rich gifts. On their behalf, the Commons petitioned Henry VI to recognize them as his uterine brothers (born of the same mother); this he did, and more. Since no earl, especially the brother of the king, could be penniless, Henry continued to grant his brothers numerous lands and annuities. And, as mentioned before, he also arranged a rich marriage for Edmund to Margaret Beaufort.
The importance of their Welsh blood should not be underestimated. Both Edmund and Jasper strove to maintain the kings authority in both south and west Wales and their Welsh ancestry (discussed in the Welsh Connection section) made them popular in much of Wales. Welsh support would later prove critical to Henry VII during the battle at Bosworth. Had Richard not betrayed his nephews, there is every possibility the Yorkist dynasty would have survived. But Richards own future would have been quite difficult; he was despised by Elizabeth Woodville, and as Edward IVs only brother he would become the focus of Woodville discontent. That would not have lasted for long and Edward V would have followed his mothers wishes. The boy had, after all, been raised and tutored by his Woodville relations and hardly knew Richard. Also, the state of the monarchy pre-Henry VII: Edward IV, the first Yorkist king, was the only English king since Henry II to die solvent. Having repossessed the lands of the exiled Lancastrian nobility and seeking support from the middle-class, he was able to run England effectively and efficiently. Whatever his faults as a man (unfaithful and increasingly debauched), he was a good king. It is difficult not to admire the tenacity the Lancastrian exiles maintained during these years of planning and defeat. Jasper increasingly began to see Wales as the perfect place for invasion since it was always hostile to the English monarchy. The Welsh were understandably sympathetic to any cause which involved this high-ranking Welshman. To many, Jasper was a national hero a Welshman who had succeeded at the English court and could be counted upon to support their rights. In the spring of 1468, they had cause to rejoice because Jasper was coming to Wales. Edward IV had just made a treaty with independent French nobles which angered Louis XI of France. Accordingly, he decided to once again lend his support to the Lancastrian struggle. But, once again, the support was not as much as necessary. Jasper arrived in Wales and, though he gathered 2000 men, he was eventually routed at Harlech Castle. Jasper once again escaped, some say by impersonating a peasant. Once again, he was in France, still exiled and still defeated. One can only imagine his frustration.
Ricahrd was an able administrator but faced quite a few obstacles during his brief reign. If Edward IV had died with no rightful heir, Richards ascension would have been viewed much differently. Then, he would have been the rightful king. And since he wed Anne Neville of Warwick, daughter of the Kingmaker, he would have had crucial support. But Richards only son and wife died with months of one another in 1484. He was grief-stricken and also struggling with the nobility, particularly the ambitious duke of Buckingham (a brash and arrogant man with his own share of Plantagenet blood.)
Meanwhile, over in France, Henry Tudor was positioning himself as heir to his murdered uncle Henry VI. With the support of exiled Lancastrians and the French monarchy, Henry planned to mount an invasion of England. Of course, the exiled Lancastrian nobility (Henrys family) were involved in countless plots to return to power. Captured spies exaggerated reports of their strength; one told Edward IV that the kings of France, Denmark, Portugal, and Aragon were planning a Lancastrian-led invasion. Certainly any monarch would be uneasy after such reports. Edward IV captured the earl of Oxford and his son, believed to be Lancastrian sympathizers, and executed them for treason. Though the plot was not as grand as the spy alleged, it had involved French support and Jasper Tudor made his way to the continent. Eventually, a convoluted agreement was made with Louis XI the French king. This second plan failed around Christmas 1462. In 1464, Louis XI decided to switch loyalties to Edward IV and urged the other Lancastrian ally, Francis II duke of Brittany, to do the same.
What had prepared Henry for this moment? At twenty-eight he was hardly an experienced soldier but he was used to a life of sudden change. In the 1450s his father Edmund and uncle Jasper were Henry VIs closest relatives, part of a small group of influential advisors to the king. Other than these half-brothers, Henry VI was bereft of close blood relatives; his uncles, the dukes of Bedford, Clarence and Gloucester, had all died without legitimate heirs and this left both an emotional and dynastic void at the court. Also, Henrys government was reviled as inefficient and corrupt. His two most prominent ministers were the dukes of Suffolk and Somerset and the English people reviled them. Henry had also raised taxes and spent heavily to assert his right to the French throne. Perhaps if he had been successful at it, the English people would not have grumbled about the taxes. But he wasnt successful and, as the defeats multiplied, the people grew naturally resentful of the taxation and Henrys attempts to enforce it. Also, many Englishmen (commoner and noble alike) were uncertain about the very survival of Henrys dynasty. After eight years of marriage, he and Margaret of Anjou had no children. Increasingly, eyes turned to Henrys cousin Richard, duke of York, for stability and reform. Henry, perhaps feeling as if Richard were being positioned to either dominate his government or usurp the throne, turned to his small group of advisors for guidance.
Wales was always a problem for Henry VI for a major rebellion had ended just 40 years before and occasional fighting was not uncommon. Edmund Tudor, as the eldest brother, went there as a representative of the English king. While the duke of York was regent, Edmund led a raid to reassert the dukes authority on his lands, centered on the castle Carmarthen. He fought and won the castle back from a Welsh rebel who had seized it. While the duke was regent, this success was acceptable; Edmund held the castle for Richard and his authority as regent. But after Richard left London in some disgrace, his English supporters in and near Wales were worried. What if Edmund Tudor attempted to return Carmarthen and its lands to Henry VI rather than the duke? Edmund was no longer a representative of the duke as regent; he was now a representative of the king. Determined to reassert Richards authority in West Wales, they led a raid on Carmarthen and imprisoned Edmund sometime in September 1456. Edmund was released soon after but had already developed a fatal illness. He died on 1 November 1456 at Carmarthen and was given a fine burial at the nearby Greyfriars Church. No one was ever accused of directly causing his death and it is possible that he always suffered from ill health; government records show he was absent from meetings far more than Jasper. Then again, Edmund was also a husband and on, 28 January 1457, a father; sadly, he died before his son was born. This son would be called Henry and would become the first Tudor king of England.
On 12 March 1471, Edward returned from Europe and landed in Yorkshire. He marched south to London, reaching there on 11 April; on 14 April, he fought Warwick at the Battle of Barnet. Edward won and promptly killed Warwick. He also regained custody of Henry VI. The situation was once again dire; Jasper Tudor promptly began to raise an army to fight Edward. Meanwhile, Margaret of Anjou and Prince Edward arrived in England as planned so many months ago. She knew nothing of Warwicks defeat and her husbands capture. Upon hearing the news, she was devastated but unbowed. She gathered an army in the West Country and marched north toward Wales; she was planning to meet and join forces with Jasper. Edward IV was no fool and realized that he must make a quick, decisive strike. He was determined to meet Margarets army before she met up with Jasper. Edward and Margaret met south of Tewkesbury on 4 May 1471. Margaret was soundly defeated and her son killed during or after the battle. Captured like her husband and with their only child killed, Margaret was taken to London. Jasper Tudor, unable to reach her in time, was an exile once again and, this time, so was his nephew. The defeat at Tewkesbury was devastating to the Lancastrian cause. Only hours after Edward IV returned in triumph to London, Henry VI was dead in the Tower. The circumstances of his death were mysterious but the execution of his supporter the duke of Somerset was an open warning. Jasper Tudor had good reason to fear for both his and Henrys safety. Margaret Beaufort and her husband almost immediately declared allegiance to Edward to protect themselves. But her son, as one of the few surviving males with Lancastrian blood, was destined for France. Jasper hoped that their old ally Louis XI would aid them once again.
- Emma Irving
- His claim to the throne came through his mother. Henry’s mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was an intelligent and learned woman, said to be the heir of John of Gaunt after the extinction of Henry V’s line.
- He spent much of his early life under protection or in exile. His father, Edmund Tudor, was captured by the Yorkists and died in prison 3 months before Henry’s birth, and his mother was only 13 when he was born.
- He secured his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. He did not marry Elizabeth until after his coronation, which underlined that he ruled in his own right.
- The Tudor rose was born. The emblem of a white and red rose was adopted as one of the king’s badges, meant to symbolise the union of the Houses of Lancaster (red rose) and York (white rose).
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547. Henry is best known for his six marriages, and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage (to Catherine of Aragon) annulled.