The number of SFR cases has risen in the last two decades, from 495 cases in 2000, to a peak of 6,248 in 2017. However, cases reported in 2018 were slightly lower.Because of the inability to differentiate between spotted fever group Rickettsia species using commonly available serologic tests, it is unclear how many of those cases are RMSF, and how many resul...The number of SFR cases reported to CDC per year have generally increased over time with distinct increases since the mid-1990s.Notably, while the number of cases and incidence rose, the case fatality rate (i.e., the proportion of SFR patients that died as a result of infection) has declined since the 1940s when tetracyclin...The current case fatality rate for SFRs using surveillance data is still roughly 0.5% of cases.Although SFR cases can occur during any month of the year, most cases reported illness in May–August.This period coincides with the season when adult Dermacentorticks are most active.Seasonal trends may vary depending on the area of the country and tick species involved.SFR cases have been reported throughout the contiguous United States, although five states (Arkansas, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) account for over 50% of SFR cases.In Arizona, RMSF cases have recently been identified in an area where the disease had not been previously seen. From 2003 to 2018, nearly 430 cases were reported with a case-fatality rate of about 5%.SFR cases are more frequently reported in men than in women.People over the age of 40 years account for the highest number of reported cases, however, children under 10 years old represent the highest number of reported deaths.Persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.Surveillance data shows higher risk for hospitalization in people with compromised immune systems (e.g., resulting from cancer treatments, advanced HIV infection, prior organ transplants, or some m...
- at A Glance
- Historical Trends
- People at Risk
County Maps and Atlases: General - Covering the late 1850s through the 1870s. Land Office Map Collection - An index of Land Office maps found in Record Group 17, arranged alphabetically by county and then by township. Melish-Whiteside County Maps - Maps, created between 1816 and 1821, of forty-four counties, Record Group 17.
Pennsylvania Historical Maps and Atlases. The state of Pennsylvania collection contains 654 atlases spanning 326 years of growth and development (1681 through 2007).Within the atlases are 24,371 historical maps, illustrations, and histories many of which contain family names ideal for genealogical research.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Fact Sheet 1. What is Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (RMSF)? - RMSF is a severe disease resulting from infection by Rickettsia rickettsii, a bacterium that is transmitted vertically from the female tick to her offspring. 2. Where does RMSF infection occur in Pennsylvania? - Rocky Mountain
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Pennsylvania has many mountains, peaks, and hills within its borders. Above you will find an interactive map with pins for all of these summits. Just zoom in to see their specific location in Pennsylvania. You’ll also find a list of Pennsylvania counties, from Adams County to York County.
Year Published: 2017 Historical Topographic Map Collection bookmark. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006.
- Background Information
- Prevention and Control of Ticks on People
- Prevention and Control of Ticks on Animals
Ticks are parasitic arthropods that feed on the blood of vertebrates, particularly mammals (including humans) but also birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many species of ticks can transmit pathogens between animals and to humans, including various parasitic worms, viruses, and bacteria. The most important of these in Pennsylvania are the bacteria that cause Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. There are more than 900 species of ticks worldwide, at least 25 of which occur in Pennsylvania. Of these, two species account for more than 90 percent of identification requests submitted to Penn State: blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and American dog tick (Dermacentor variablis). Three other species that may be encountered are also covered herein: lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum), Asian longhorn tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis), and winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus).
Lyme Disease or Lyme borreliosis is an infection caused by the bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by ixodid ticks. Humans, dogs, and horses seem to be the most susceptible to the infection. It is a multisystem illness characterized initially by erythema migrans (bullseye rash) and a series of common nonspecific complaints and symptoms including headache, fever, sore throat, and nausea. Left untreated, it may progress to late phase symptoms including debilitating r...
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
RMSF is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease was first recognized in the United States during the 1890s, but until the 1930s it was reported only in the Rocky Mountains. By 1963, over 90 percent of all cases were reported east of the Rockies. Rickettsia rickettsia is vectored by American dog ticks and lone star ticks in the eastern US, while it is vectored in the western US by Rocky Mountain wood ticks (Dermacentor andersoni). Symptoms of RMSF include a fever and often a...
Tularemia, which is also called rabbit fever, is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. The bacterium can be vectored by lone star ticks, American dog ticks, Rocky Mountain wood ticks, rabbit ticks (Haemaphysalis leporispalustris), and deer flies, as well as exposure to rabbit blood (e.g., butchering a rabbit without gloves and other protection or via aerosolized blood after a rabbit is struck by a lawnmower). The number of cases in the United States has dropped considerably in the l...
The best way to avoid tick bites is to stay out of wooded or brushy areas. However, this option is not always realistic. Repellents such as DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide) offer considerable protection if applied to clothing and exposed skin. Another protective option is the application of Permanone™, an effective acaricide that contains the synthetic pyrethroid permethrin and is applied as a spray to clothing. It is not approved for use on skin. For more information, see the EPA Repellent Search Tool. Long-sleeved shirts and long pants tucked into socks also aid in preventing tick bites. Light-colored clothing helps to detect the dark-colored tick provided the wearer inspects for ticks intermittently. Hunters and hikers increase their risk of encountering ticks by following deer trails and by resting on the forest floor. However, deer do not carry the pathogen that causes Lyme disease. For other game, like turkey, cooking destroys the bacteria and eliminates any danger of getting...
Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases also affect livestock and companion animals, in particular dogs and horses. For information on prevention and control in animals, please see the Penn State fact sheets on Protecting Companion Animals Against Ticks in Pennsylvania and Protecting Livestock Against Ticks in Pennsylvania.
Discover the past of Pennsylvania through State maps in our online collection of old historical maps that span over 250 years of growth. View Pennsylvania Maps such such as historical county boundaries changes, old vintage maps, as well as road / highway maps for all 67 counties in Pennsylvania.
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia's Library of American History, is a source of books, manuscripts, and images for Educators, Students, Researchers, and Genealogists