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Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial disease spread by ticks. It typically begins with a fever and headache , which is followed a few days later with the development of a rash .  The rash is generally made up of small spots of bleeding and starts on the wrists and ankles. 
The number of SFR cases has risen in the last two decades, from 495 cases in 2000, to a peak of 6,248 in 2017. However, cases reported in 2018 were slightly lower.Because of the inability to differentiate between spotted fever group Rickettsia species using commonly available serologic tests, it is unclear how many of those cases are RMSF, and how many resul...The number of SFR cases reported to CDC per year have generally increased over time with distinct increases since the mid-1990s.Notably, while the number of cases and incidence rose, the case fatality rate (i.e., the proportion of SFR patients that died as a result of infection) has declined since the 1940s when tetracyclin...The current case fatality rate for SFRs using surveillance data is still roughly 0.5% of cases.Although SFR cases can occur during any month of the year, most cases reported illness in May–August.This period coincides with the season when adult Dermacentorticks are most active.Seasonal trends may vary depending on the area of the country and tick species involved.SFR cases have been reported throughout the contiguous United States, although five states (Arkansas, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) account for over 50% of SFR cases.In Arizona, RMSF cases have recently been identified in an area where the disease had not been previously seen. From 2003 to 2018, nearly 430 cases were reported with a case-fatality rate of about 5%.SFR cases are more frequently reported in men than in women.People over the age of 40 years account for the highest number of reported cases, however, children under 10 years old represent the highest number of reported deaths.Persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.Surveillance data shows higher risk for hospitalization in people with compromised immune systems (e.g., resulting from cancer treatments, advanced HIV infection, prior organ transplants, or some m...
- at A Glance
- Historical Trends
- People at Risk
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, form of tick-borne typhus first described in the Rocky Mountain section of the United States, caused by a specific microorganism (Rickettsia rickettsii). Discovery of the microbe of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in 1906 by H.T. Ricketts led to the understanding of other
- Risk Factors
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a bacterial infection transmitted by a tick. Without prompt treatment, Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause serious damage to internal organs, such as your kidneys and heart.Although it was first identified in the Rocky Mountains, Rocky Mountain spotted fever is most commonly found in the southeastern part of the United States. It also occurs in parts of Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America.Early signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever...
Although many people become ill within the first week after infection, signs and symptoms may not appear for up to 14 days. Initial signs and symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever often are nonspecific and can mimic those of other illnesses: 1. High fever 2. Chills 3. Severe headache 4. Muscle aches 5. Nausea and vomiting 6. Confusion or other neurological changes
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by infection with the organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Ticks carrying R. rickettsii are the most common source of infection.If an infected tick attaches itself to your skin and feeds on your blood for six to 10 hours, you may pick up the infection. But you may never see the tick on you.Rocky Mountain spotted fever primarily occurs when ticks are most active and during warm weather when people tend to spend more time outdoors. Rocky Mountain spotted fever...
Factors that may increase your risk of contracting Rocky Mountain spotted fever include: 1. Living in an area where the disease is common 2. The time of year — infections are more common in the spring and early summer 3. How much time you spend in grassy or wooded areas 4. Whether you have a dog or spend time with dogsIf an infected tick attaches to your skin, you can contract Rocky Mountain spotted fever when you remove it, as fluid from the tick can enter your body through an opening such a...
Rocky Mountain spotted fever damages the lining of your smallest blood vessels, causing the vessels to leak or form clots. This may cause: 1. Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). In addition to severe headaches, Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause inflammation of the brain, which can cause confusion, seizures and delirium. 2. Inflammation of the heart or lungs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever can cause inflammation in areas of the heart and lungs. This can lead to heart failure or lung f...
You can decrease your chances of contracting Rocky Mountain spotted fever by taking some simple precautions: 1. Wear long pants and sleeves. When walking in wooded or grassy areas, wear shoes, long pants tucked into socks and long-sleeved shirts. Try to stick to trails and avoid walking through low bushes and long grass. 2. Use insect repellents. Products containing DEET (Off! Deep Woods, Repel) often repel ticks. Be sure to follow the instructions on the label. Clothing that has permethrin i...
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious tickborne illness which can be deadly if not treated early. It is spread by several species of ticks in the United States, including the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) pdf icon [PDF – 1 page], Rocky Mountain wood tick (Dermacentor andersoni) pdf icon [PDF – 1 page], and, in parts of the southwestern United States and Mexico, the brown ...
The map above shows the location of the United States within North America, with Mexico to the south and Canada to the north. Found in the Western Hemisphere, the country is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and the Pacific Ocean in the west, as well as the Gulf of Mexico to the south.
- The Babylonian World Map
- Ptolemy’s Geography
- The Peutinger Map
- The Tabula Rogeriana
- The Da Ming Hun Yi Tu
- The Cantino Planisphere
- The Waldseemüller World Map
- The Mercator Projection
History’s earliest known world map was scratched on clay tablets in the ancient city of Babylon sometime around 600 B.C. The star-shaped map measures just five-by-three inches and shows the world as a flat disc surrounded by an ocean, or “bitter river.” Babylon and the Euphrates River are depicted in the center as a pair of rectangles, while the neighboring cities of Assyria and Susa are shown as small, circular blobs. Outside of the disc sit a collection of triangular wedges, which depict far-off islands with mysterious labels such as “beyond the flight of birds” and “a place where the sun cannot be seen.” The accompanying cuneiform text describes these unknown lands as being populated by mythological beasts, which suggests that the map shows both real geographical features and elements of Babylonian cosmology.
Many elements of the science of cartography can trace their origins to the work of the Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemaeus, better known as Ptolemy. Around 150 A.D., he produced “Geography,” an eight-volume textbook that included some of the first maps to use mathematical principles. Ptolemy’s book has a few notable errors—the Indian Ocean, for example, is depicted as a sea—yet it’s still remarkable for its breadth and detail. It boasts more than 8,000 different place names as well as references to such far-flung locales as Iceland and Korea, all of which are plotted according to geometric points of latitude and longitude. Sadly, no maps drawn by Ptolemy have survived to today. His atlas seems to have disappeared for over a thousand years, and it wasn’t until the 13th century that Byzantine scholars began making projections using his coordinates.
During the days when all roads led to Rome, the so-called Peutinger Map would have served as a handy guide to the Empire’s transportation network. The oddly shaped map is 22 feet long and just one foot wide, and depicts the course of more 60,000 miles of Roman roads stretching from Western Europe to the Middle East. An additional section also shows India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. Much like a modern travel guide, the map includes the locations of more than 500 cities along with some 3,500 other points of interest such as way stations, temples, forests, rivers and even spas. The original Peutinger map was probably completed sometime around the 4th century A.D., but the version that exists today is a 13th century copy. It is named for the German scholar Konrad Peutinger, who took ownership of it in the early 1500s.
In the 12th century A.D., the renowned Muslim scholar al-Idrisi was invited to the court of the Norman King Roger II and asked to produce a book on geography. The result was the “Tabula Rogeriania,” also known by its longer title, “A Guide to Pleasant Journeys into Faraway Lands.” The book featured several regional maps as well as a projection of the known world, which depicted the entirety of Eurasia and a large section of Africa. By drawing from interviews with travelers and his own wanderings through Europe, al-Idrisi also compiled extensive data on the climate, politics and culture of different regions. The Tabula Rogeriana remained among the world’s most accurate maps for several centuries, but it may appear strange at first glance—in the tradition of Islamic cartographers, al-Idrisi drew it with south positioned at the top.
One of the earliest surviving world maps from the Far East, China’s Da Ming Hun Yi Tu, or “Amalgamated Map of the Ming Empire,” was drawn on silk as early as 1389. The map spans the entire Eurasian continent from Japan to the Atlantic Ocean, and includes detailed markings of mountain ranges, rivers and administrative centers. It is particularly notable for the way in which it distorts the size of various landmasses. Mainland China sits like a monolith in the middle of the map, while Japan and Korea are both far larger than India. The African continent, meanwhile, is depicted as a relatively small peninsula with what appears to be a giant lake in its center. Despite these peculiarities, the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu is often cited as the first map to show Africa with a southern tip that could be circumnavigated.
The Cantino Planisphere was once at the center of an act of cartographic theft. In 1502, an Italian duke commissioned an agent named Alberto Cantino to acquire a map of the geographic discoveries of the Kingdom of Portugal, which was notorious for closely guarding the location of the new lands found by its explorers. Cantino succeeded in his mission, and the map that he smuggled out of Portugal has since become famous. Not only does it depict Africa, India and Europe in unprecedented detail, it stands as one of the earliest known maps to show the coastlines of Portugal’s “New World” territories in South America. To the north of Brazil, the map also includes a small grouping of landmasses that appear to be Cuba, Hispaniola and part of the American East Coast.
Martin Waldseemüller is far from a household name, but perhaps he should be—he helped give the American continents their name. In 1507, the German cartographer produced the first map in history to depict the New World as a distinct landmass with the Pacific Ocean on its western side. In honor of the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci, who had first posited the separate continent theory, Waldseemüller and collaborator Matthias Ringmann dubbed these new Western Hemisphere territories “America.” The Waldseemüller map has since been called “America’s birth certificate,” but it also bears the distinction of being the most expensive world map of all time. In 2003, the Library of Congress purchased the only surviving copy for a whopping $10 million.
Once a staple of school classrooms the world over, the famed Mercator projection has also been the subject of considerable debate and controversy. The Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator first designed the map style in 1569 as a way of displaying the spherical Earth on a flat, rectangular surface. With this in mind, he drew a world map with parallels of latitude that are spaced increasingly far apart as they move away from the equator. This feature made the Mercator projection invaluable to mariners, who could use it to sail in straight lines with a constant compass bearing, but it also meant that the relative size of different landmasses was hugely distorted. Greenland and other polar regions appear far larger than they actually are, while equatorial landmasses such as Africa and South America are heavily compressed. The Mercator projection nevertheless remained a fixture of atlases until the 20th century, when critics began to denounce it as inaccurate. While it’s still used as...
- Q Fever in The United States
- Seasonal Trends
- People at Risk
Q fever was made a nationally notifiable disease in the United States in 1999. CDC compiles the number of cases reported by state and local health departments and reports national trends. The number of Q fever cases reported to CDC increased, from 19 cases reported in 2000, to 173 cases reported in 2007. In 2008, the Q fever case definition was changed to allow for the reporting of chronic and acute Q fever separately. During 2008–2013 the number of reported cases decreased slightly, relative to 2007, returning to high levels in 2014. In 2017, 153 acute Q fever cases were reported, as well as 40 chronic Q fever cases. Top of Page
The number of cases of Q fever per million persons varies by state, with cases most frequently reported from western and plains states where ranching and rearing of livestock are common. More than one third of cases (38%) are reported from three states (California, Texas, and Iowa). Sporadic reports of cases may result when people travel to other states or countries and are infected with C. burnetii. Top of Page
Cases of Q fever can occur during any month of the year. Most cases of report illness begin in the spring and early summer months, peaking in April and May. This timeframe is also the peak of birthing season for cattle, sheep and goats. Top of Page
More cases of Q fever are reported in older people, especially men. However, men may be more likely to hold jobs with increased risk for Q fever exposure, such as ranching or livestock management. People who live or spend time near ranches and livestock facilities are at increased risk for Q fever infection. Studies have shown that people with a history of heart valve defects, endocarditis, or heart valve implants may have increased risk of chronic infection and severe disease. Top of Page
Apr 02, 2020 · Where found: Rocky Mountain states and southwestern Canada from elevations of 4,000 to 10,500 feet. Transmits: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colorado tick fever, and tularemia. Comments: Adult ticks feed primarily on large mammals. Larvae and nymphs feed on small rodents. Adult ticks are primarily associated with pathogen transmission to humans.