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Where did Rocky Mountain spotted fever originate?
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What is the earliest known world map?
Dengue outbreaks are occurring in many countries of the world in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Anyone who lives in or travels to an area with risk of dengue is at risk for infection.
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, form of tick-borne typhus first described in the Rocky Mountain section of the United States, caused by a specific microorganism (Rickettsia rickettsii). Discovery of the microbe of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in 1906 by H.T. Ricketts led to the understanding of other
The number of SFR cases has risen in the last two decades, from 495 cases in 2000, to a peak of 6,248 in 2017. However, cases reported in 2018 were slightly lower.Because of the inability to differentiate between spotted fever group Rickettsia species using commonly available serologic tests, it is unclear how many of those cases are RMSF, and how many resul...The number of SFR cases reported to CDC per year have generally increased over time with distinct increases since the mid-1990s.Notably, while the number of cases and incidence rose, the case fatality rate (i.e., the proportion of SFR patients that died as a result of infection) has declined since the 1940s when tetracyclin...The current case fatality rate for SFRs using surveillance data is still roughly 0.5% of cases.Although SFR cases can occur during any month of the year, most cases reported illness in May–August.This period coincides with the season when adult Dermacentorticks are most active.Seasonal trends may vary depending on the area of the country and tick species involved.SFR cases have been reported throughout the contiguous United States, although five states (Arkansas, Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) account for over 50% of SFR cases.In Arizona, RMSF cases have recently been identified in an area where the disease had not been previously seen. From 2003 to 2018, nearly 430 cases were reported with a case-fatality rate of about 5%.SFR cases are more frequently reported in men than in women.People over the age of 40 years account for the highest number of reported cases, however, children under 10 years old represent the highest number of reported deaths.Persons with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.Surveillance data shows higher risk for hospitalization in people with compromised immune systems (e.g., resulting from cancer treatments, advanced HIV infection, prior organ transplants, or some m...
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Aug 28, 2018 · Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection spread by a bite from an infected tick. It causes vomiting, a sudden high fever around 102 or 103°F, headache, abdominal pain, rash ...
- Jacquelyn Cafasso
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a big part of the 1947 Republic Pictures movie Driftwood, starring Walter Brennan, James Bell, Dean Jagger, Natalie Wood, and Hobart Cavanaugh. In December 2013, hockey player Shane Doan was diagnosed with Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and returned to play in January 2014.
Apr 14, 2020 · The World Health Organization’s definition of a pandemic is “the worldwide spread of a new disease”. The new disease is infectious and contagious. Image credit: ImageFlow/Shutterstock.com. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 following a global immunization program led by the World Health Organization.
Historical maps are often useful to scientists, historians, environmentalists, genealogists and others researching a particular geographic location or area. The goal of The National Map’s Historical Topographic Map Collection (HTMC) is to provide a digital repository of USGS 1:250,000 scale and larger maps printed between 1884, the inception ...
- The Babylonian World Map
- Ptolemy’s Geography
- The Peutinger Map
- The Tabula Rogeriana
- The Da Ming Hun Yi Tu
- The Cantino Planisphere
- The Waldseemüller World Map
- The Mercator Projection
History’s earliest known world map was scratched on clay tablets in the ancient city of Babylon sometime around 600 B.C. The star-shaped map measures just five-by-three inches and shows the world as a flat disc surrounded by an ocean, or “bitter river.” Babylon and the Euphrates River are depicted in the center as a pair of rectangles, while the neighboring cities of Assyria and Susa are shown as small, circular blobs. Outside of the disc sit a collection of triangular wedges, which depict far-off islands with mysterious labels such as “beyond the flight of birds” and “a place where the sun cannot be seen.” The accompanying cuneiform text describes these unknown lands as being populated by mythological beasts, which suggests that the map shows both real geographical features and elements of Babylonian cosmology.
Many elements of the science of cartography can trace their origins to the work of the Greek scholar Claudius Ptolemaeus, better known as Ptolemy. Around 150 A.D., he produced “Geography,” an eight-volume textbook that included some of the first maps to use mathematical principles. Ptolemy’s book has a few notable errors—the Indian Ocean, for example, is depicted as a sea—yet it’s still remarkable for its breadth and detail. It boasts more than 8,000 different place names as well as references to such far-flung locales as Iceland and Korea, all of which are plotted according to geometric points of latitude and longitude. Sadly, no maps drawn by Ptolemy have survived to today. His atlas seems to have disappeared for over a thousand years, and it wasn’t until the 13th century that Byzantine scholars began making projections using his coordinates.
During the days when all roads led to Rome, the so-called Peutinger Map would have served as a handy guide to the Empire’s transportation network. The oddly shaped map is 22 feet long and just one foot wide, and depicts the course of more 60,000 miles of Roman roads stretching from Western Europe to the Middle East. An additional section also shows India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia. Much like a modern travel guide, the map includes the locations of more than 500 cities along with some 3,500 other points of interest such as way stations, temples, forests, rivers and even spas. The original Peutinger map was probably completed sometime around the 4th century A.D., but the version that exists today is a 13th century copy. It is named for the German scholar Konrad Peutinger, who took ownership of it in the early 1500s.
In the 12th century A.D., the renowned Muslim scholar al-Idrisi was invited to the court of the Norman King Roger II and asked to produce a book on geography. The result was the “Tabula Rogeriania,” also known by its longer title, “A Guide to Pleasant Journeys into Faraway Lands.” The book featured several regional maps as well as a projection of the known world, which depicted the entirety of Eurasia and a large section of Africa. By drawing from interviews with travelers and his own wanderings through Europe, al-Idrisi also compiled extensive data on the climate, politics and culture of different regions. The Tabula Rogeriana remained among the world’s most accurate maps for several centuries, but it may appear strange at first glance—in the tradition of Islamic cartographers, al-Idrisi drew it with south positioned at the top.
One of the earliest surviving world maps from the Far East, China’s Da Ming Hun Yi Tu, or “Amalgamated Map of the Ming Empire,” was drawn on silk as early as 1389. The map spans the entire Eurasian continent from Japan to the Atlantic Ocean, and includes detailed markings of mountain ranges, rivers and administrative centers. It is particularly notable for the way in which it distorts the size of various landmasses. Mainland China sits like a monolith in the middle of the map, while Japan and Korea are both far larger than India. The African continent, meanwhile, is depicted as a relatively small peninsula with what appears to be a giant lake in its center. Despite these peculiarities, the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu is often cited as the first map to show Africa with a southern tip that could be circumnavigated.
The Cantino Planisphere was once at the center of an act of cartographic theft. In 1502, an Italian duke commissioned an agent named Alberto Cantino to acquire a map of the geographic discoveries of the Kingdom of Portugal, which was notorious for closely guarding the location of the new lands found by its explorers. Cantino succeeded in his mission, and the map that he smuggled out of Portugal has since become famous. Not only does it depict Africa, India and Europe in unprecedented detail, it stands as one of the earliest known maps to show the coastlines of Portugal’s “New World” territories in South America. To the north of Brazil, the map also includes a small grouping of landmasses that appear to be Cuba, Hispaniola and part of the American East Coast.
Martin Waldseemüller is far from a household name, but perhaps he should be—he helped give the American continents their name. In 1507, the German cartographer produced the first map in history to depict the New World as a distinct landmass with the Pacific Ocean on its western side. In honor of the Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci, who had first posited the separate continent theory, Waldseemüller and collaborator Matthias Ringmann dubbed these new Western Hemisphere territories “America.” The Waldseemüller map has since been called “America’s birth certificate,” but it also bears the distinction of being the most expensive world map of all time. In 2003, the Library of Congress purchased the only surviving copy for a whopping $10 million.
Once a staple of school classrooms the world over, the famed Mercator projection has also been the subject of considerable debate and controversy. The Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator first designed the map style in 1569 as a way of displaying the spherical Earth on a flat, rectangular surface. With this in mind, he drew a world map with parallels of latitude that are spaced increasingly far apart as they move away from the equator. This feature made the Mercator projection invaluable to mariners, who could use it to sail in straight lines with a constant compass bearing, but it also meant that the relative size of different landmasses was hugely distorted. Greenland and other polar regions appear far larger than they actually are, while equatorial landmasses such as Africa and South America are heavily compressed. The Mercator projection nevertheless remained a fixture of atlases until the 20th century, when critics began to denounce it as inaccurate. While it’s still used as...
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