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    Urdu ( Nastaliq: اردو; / ˈʊərduː /; ALA-LC: Urdū) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in South Asia. [10] [11] It is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan, where it is also an official language alongside English. [12]

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    • Dehlavi

      Kauravi (Hindi: कौरवी, Urdu: کَوروی), also known as...

  2. The Pakistan Movement ( Urdu: تحریکِ پاکستان, romanized : Teḥrīk-e-Pākistān) was a political movement in the first half of the 20th century that aimed for the creation of Pakistan from the Muslim -majority areas of British India. It was connected to the perceived need for self-determination for Muslims under British rule at the time.

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    • Origin
    • Religious Period
    • Urdu in The Deccan
    • 18th Century
    • 19th Century
    • Special Contributors
    • Dāstāngoi (EPICS) داستان گوئی
    • تذکیرہ
    • Poetry شاعری
    • Novels

    Urdu developed during early 11th century Muslim invasions of the Punjab from Central Asia, although the name "Urdu" did not exist at the time for the language. Urdu literature originated some time around the 14th century in present-day North India among the sophisticated gentry of the courts. The continuing traditions of Islam and patronisations of...

    Literary composition in Urdu first started in the Deccan in the 14th century. An early form of Urdu was first introduced in the Deccan by the soldiers of Alauddin Khalji who raided the Deccan from 1294 to 1311. In 1326, Muhammad bin Tughluq shifted his capital from Delhi to the Deccan and in 1347 Zafar Khan, his governor in the Deccan, declared ind...

    Qutub Shahi poets

    Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda and founder of the city of Hyderabad, was a royal poet and prolific writer in Persian and Dakhini. Other poets included Wajhi and Gavvasi. In 1655, Ibn e Nishati wrote Phul ban, a romance in 1300 lines. Qissa o bairam e Gul andmanwritten by Tab’i is an important work of the period. Written in 1670, it is nearly 2700 lines long.

    Adil Shahi poets

    Ibrahim Adil Shah II was another royal poet who was also a patron of art and literature.His Kitab-e-Navras (Book of Nine Rasas) in Dakhani is a collection of 59 poems and 17 couplets. Other important poets included Rustami, Nusrati, and Mirza.

    Urdu in Deccan under Mughal Rule

    The most important Urdu writer of this period was Wali Mohammed Wali.

    First Urdu period in Delhi

    In the 18th century, the three most important forms of Urdu poetry were ghazal, the qasida, and the masnavi. Shaikh Zahuruddin Hatim was an important poet in Delhi during this period. His major works include two volumes of poetry, Diwan and Diwanzada. Urdu poetry was dominated by Mazhar, Sauda, Mir, and Dard, who later came to be known as “the Four Pillars of Urdu Poetry”. Another major figure was Mir Hasan, known for his masnavis, the most famous being Sihar-ul-Bayan, often referred to as Ma...


    Ghalib, better known for his poetry, also wrote a considerable amount of Urdu prose during his lifetime which includes his collection of letters and three short pamphlets entitled Lataif-i-Ghalib, Tegh-i-Tez, and Nama-i-Ghalib. His letters, autobiographical in nature, were collected and published in two volumes as Urdu-i-Mualla (the Royal Urdu) and Ud-i-Hindi(Fragrant Stick of India).


    Drama in Urdu was introduced in the 19th century through the production of Inder Sabha written by Agha Hasan Amanat, and first staged in 1853. It was a musical comedy with a thin plot line and was modelled after the European opera.

    Amir Khusro exercised great influence on the initial growth of not only Urdu literature, but the language itself (which only truly took shape as distinguished from both Persian and proto-Hindi around the 14th century). He is credited with the systematization of northern Indian classical music, including Hindustani music, and he wrote works both in ...

    Urdu literature was generally composed more of poetry than of prose. The prose component of Urdu literature was mainly restricted to the ancient form of epic stories called dāstān (داستان). These long stories have complicated plots that deal with magical and otherwise fantastic creatures and events. The genre originated in the Middle East and was d...

    Tazkiras, are compilations of literary memoirs that include verses and maxims of the great poets along with biographical information and commentaries on their styles. They are often a collection of names with a line or two of information about each poet, followed by specifics about his composition. Some of these tazkiras give biographical details, ...

    Urdu poetry (Urdu: شاعری), reached its peak in the 19th century. The most well-developed form of poetry is the ghazal, known for its quality and quantity within the Urdu tradition.

    Initially, Urdu novels focused on urban social life, eventually widening in scope to include rural social life. They also covered the changing times under the progressive writing movement inspired by Sajjad Zaheer. However, the partition of India had a great impact on the novel, bringing up questions of identity and migration as can be seen in the ...

  4. The recorded history of Jhelum ( Urdu: تاريخ جہلم ), a district of modern-day Pakistan, covers thousands of years. Since its creation, Persian, Greek, Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim, Sikh, and British dominates the influences to present-day Pakistan .

  5. The Pakistan Movement (also called Tehrik-e-Pakistan, Urdu: تحریکِ پاکستان) was a political movement which was active during the first half of the 20th century. At that time, British India belonged to Great Britain. In British India, most people were Hindu, or Muslim.

  6. History. What is today most commonly known as "Urdu" is believed to have been born in the 11th century AD in Uttar Pradesh and its surroundings when the Ghaznavid Empire entered the subcontinent and ruled over Punjab, the land of five rivers. Punjab was also known as "Hind" or the land east of the Indus.

  7. This wide divergence in the 1920s was deplored by Gandhi, who exhorted the re-merging of both Hindi and Urdu, naming it Hindustani, written in both Nagari and Persian scripts. [8] Though he failed in his attempt to bring together Hindi and Urdu under the Hindustani banner, he popularised Hindustani in other non-Hindustani speaking areas. [26]

  8. View history Tools This is a list of notable Urdu language writers with their date of birth who wrote Novels in Urdu. 19th Century [ edit] 20th century [ edit] Shaukat Thanvi 1904 Mumtaz Mufti 1905 Krishan Chander 1914 Naseem Hijazi 1914 Mirza Adeeb 1914 Khwaja Ahmad Abbas 1914 Naseem Hijazi 1914 Ismat Chughtai 1915 Rajinder Singh Bedi 1915

  9. Urdu-language writers by century {{bottomLinkPreText}} {{bottomLinkText}} This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by contributors ( read / edit ). Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

  10. Mar 17, 2023 · 20th Century. The 20th century was a period of significant change and upheaval for Urdu literature. This century saw the emergence of new literary movements, the development of modern literary forms, and the exploration of new themes and concerns. One of the most important literary movements of the 20th century was the Progressive Writers ...

  11. Jan 28, 2013 · The article titled ‘Ikkisveen sadi mein hamara adab’ begins with an overview of the 20th century Urdu literature and goes on to trace the prominent features of literature written in that era.

  12. O Tempo e o Vento by Érico Veríssimo (from the late 18th century to 1945) Os Sertões by Euclides da Cunha ( Canudos Campaign, 19th century) La guerra del fin del mundo by Mario Vargas Llosa ( Canudos Campaign, 19th century) Canada The Orenda by Joseph Boyden (17th-century Quebec) The Last Crossing by Guy Vanderhaeghe (19th century western Canada)

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