Post-independence years, 1972 – 1975. Bangladesh famine of 1974. Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League. Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. Jail Killing Day. Military rule, 1975 – 1990. Military coups in Bangladesh. Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict. 1990 Mass Uprising.
Indo-Bangladesh relations often emphasise a shared cultural heritage, democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence. Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 trans-boundary rivers are major issues.
People also ask
When did Bangladesh declare itself as an independent country?
When is Bangladesh's national day of independence from Pakistan?
What was the history of Bangladesh in the 1970s?
Who was the head of State in Bangladesh?
The people of Bangladesh then took part in a war to get independence from Pakistan. Independence of Bangladesh was gained through a nine-month guerilla war against the Pakistan Army, and their collaborators including paramilitary Razakars which resulted in the death of about 3 million people, as per Awami league and Indian sources, in the Bangladesh War of Independence and Bangladesh Genocide . 
The 2018–19 Independence Cup, also known as Walton Independence Cup 2018 or Walton Independence Cup Football Tournament 2018 due to the sponsorship from Walton Group, was the 10th edition of the Independence Cup, the main domestic annual club football tournament organized by Bangladesh Football Federation. Thirteen participants competed in the tournament. Arambagh KS was the winner of the previous edition, having defeated 2–0 Chittagong Abahani in the final of the tournament.
- 118,765 (5,398 per match)
- 1–26 December 2018
- Bashundhara Kings (1st title)
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested by the Pakistan Army in early hours of 26 March, immediately after he declared independence and was taken to West Pakistan, where he remained in jail until early January 1972. Bangladesh's first government formed on 10 April 1971 and took the oath of office in Meherpur, Kushtia on 17 April 1971.
- Politics and National Life
- Administrative Division
- Awards and Recognition
Tension between the two factions of Pakistan
The 1970s started with Bangladesh as part of erstwhile Pakistan amid intense political tension between the two factions of the country - East (later Bangladesh) and the West (later Pakistan). The East Pakistanis observed that the West Pakistani establishment would swiftly depose any East Pakistanis elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, such as Khawaja Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali Bogra, or Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy. Their suspicions were further aggravated by the military dictatorships of Ayub Khan...
The 1970 Bhola cyclone made landfall on the East Pakistan coastline during the evening of 12 November, around the same time as a local high tide, killing an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 people. Though the exact death toll is not known, it is considered the deadliest tropical cyclone on record.A week after the landfall, President Khan conceded that his government had made "slips" and "mistakes" in its handling of the relief efforts due to a lack of understanding of the magnitude of the disaste...
Formal Declaration of Independence
In the early hours of 26 March 1971, a military crackdown by the Pakistan army began. The Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested and the political leaders dispersed, mostly fleeing to neighbouring India where they organised a provisional government. Before being arrested by the Pakistani Army, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman passed a hand written note which contained the Bangladeshi Declaration of Independence. This note was widely circulated and transmitted by the then East Pakistan Rifles' wi...
In the 1970s, Bangladesh used to be administratively divided into 4 divisions, namely Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi which were further subdivided into a total of 17 districts (See List of districts of Bangladesh). After the independence, President's Order 7 issued in 1972 dissolved all the existing local government bodies and the names of the Union Council and District Council were changed to Union Panchayet and Zila Board, respectively. The Constitution of 1972 included specific provisions relating to the basic structure and functions of local bodies. Article 9 provided for the formation of local bodies at every administrative units to be composed of elected representatives of the areas concerned. In 1976, the Local Government Ordinance (LGO) issued by the government of General Ziaur Rahman made provisions for the formation of three types of rural local government, Union Parishad, Thana Parishad and Zila Parishad. In 1978, Jamalpurwas upgraded to a District.
Based on World Development Indicators published by the World Bankthe population of Bangladesh grew from 63 million at the beginning of the decade to 79 million by the end. This signifies an annual population growth rate of 2.3%. Population density increased from 487 to 609 per sq. km. The urban population was 7.6% of the total at the beginning, which ended up at 13.7%. Dhaka, the largest city, with a population of 1.4 million, accounted for 27.8% of the total urban population by 1979. United Nations World Population Prospectsshow that the population growth rate was in increasing trend (from 2.5% per annum to 2.8%), despite reduction in fertility rate (births per woman) from 6.9 to 6.5. Life expectancy at birth increased from 47.5 years to 52.9 years with Child (0-5) mortality reducing from 224 per 1,000 births to 203. Age dependency ratio (% of working-age population) changed from 91.0% to 92.6% by the end of the decade.
Compared to prior decade the October and November became warmer by about 0.5 degree Celsius and February and May became cooler by similar magnitude. Thus overall temperature profile became more moderate. Average rainfall decreased for June by about 59mm and increased for September by about 69mm. Average annual rainfall increased by about 74mm.
National Income and Balance of Payment
Bangladesh GDP was USD 26.4 billion in 1970, which grew to USD 28.4 billion in 1979 (in 2010 constant dollar) signifying a 0.7% annual growth. Agricultural Sector contributed to 54.6% of GDP in the beginning of the decade, which decreased to 52.5% by the end. During the same period contribution from the industrial sector increased from 8.7% to 15.7% and that of the service sector decreased from 36.7% to 31.9%.Per capita GDP decreased from USD 406 to USD 358 (in 2010 constant dollar). Accordin...
During this decade, crop production grew at an annual average rate of 0.9% driven by cereal production increase from 16.9 million metric tons to 19.7 million (implying annual growth of 1.5%) - enabled by improvement in cereal yield from 1666.2 kg per hectare to 1870.9 kg. At the same time, livestock production grew at annual 2.7% and fisheries production decreased at annual 0.6%. Altogether these contributed to overall food production increase by annualized rate of 1.2%. The catastrophic fami...
Industrial and Service Sectors
Net value addition from industrial sector, which stood at USD 3.8 billion in 1970 (in 2010 constant USD), grew at average annual rate of 1.1% to USD 4.2 billion by 1979 (in the same constant USD basis). Manufacturing sector contributed 62.1% of industrial value added in the beginning of this period and it gradually changed to 66.1% by the end. By 1979 manufacturers export accounted for 64.5% of total merchandise export while import supporting the manufacturing segment accounted for 55.2% of t...
When Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971, it inherited 3,860 km of pucca roads, 2858.73 km of railway tracks and 466 railway stations, but most roads and connecting bridges were in shambles due to the ravage of the war. After the independence war-ravaged roads, culverts and bridges were reconstructed fast and some new bridges on the national highways were built. All the district headquarters were connected with the national highway network.The construction of double line track between Dh...
The erstwhile Telegraph branch under Posts and Telegraph Department of the government was reconstructed as Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Department under Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in 1971 and again as Telegraph and Telephone Board in 1975. In 1979 Bangladesh Telegraph and Telephone Board (BTTB) was given the right to issue license for telecom and wireless services.In the beginning of the decade there were 45,000 fixed telephone line subscription in the country - which incr...
Through Presidential Order 59 of 31st May 1972, Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) was entrusted with the responsibilities of operation, maintenance, and development of generation, transmission & distribution facilities of electricity throughout the country. A separate division of the Ministry of Energy oversaw oil and gas while Petrobangla, established in 1974, became the main state oil and gas operator. Later, Rural Electrification Board(REB) was established for the development of el...Tahrunessa Abdullah, A social worker who championed the role of women in improving their families' livelihoods, was awarded Ramon Magsaysay Awardin 1978.
The literary works of the 1970s had strong influence of Bangladesh Liberation war on them. Notable literary works from Bangladeshi authors from this decade include Shawkat Osman's Jahannam Haite Biday, Dui Sainik, Nekde Aranya, Jalamgi and Janma Yadi Taba Bange; Selina Hossain's Hangor Nodi Grenade, Jalochchhvas and Magnachaitanye Shis; Humayun Ahmed's debut novel Nandita Narake and Shankhanil Karagar; Bashir Al Helal's Pratham Krishnachuda and Kalo Ilish; Rahat Khan's Anishchita Lokalay and...
After the independence a few pioneers helped set the tone of fine arts for Bangladesh. In the field of photography – Manzoor Alam Beg and Anwar Hossain made their marks. The field of painting was particularly vibrant with painters Quamrul Hassan, SM Sultan and Monirul Islam actively contributing and new artists like Monsur Ul Karim and Shahabuddin Ahmed coming up. Sultan did some of his best work in the 1970s. In 1976 the Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy put on an individual exhibition of his wo...
Music played an important role in the Bangladesh Liberation war. Music directors and composers Samar Das, Ajit Roy and Shujeo Shyam along with singers and musicians like Apel Mahmud, Amitava Sengupta, Manjula Dasgupta, Abdul Jabbar, Mala Khan, Rupa Khan, Rafiqul Alam, Kaderi Kibria, Lucky Akhand, Jahangir Hayat Khan, Mihir Kumar Nandi, Timir Nandi, Fakir Alamgir and Dalia Nausheen played instrumental role in Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra in inspiring the freedom fighters and the nation. A pair...