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The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China
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The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC), during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same.
Legends claim that the earliest rulers in China were the Xia Dynasty, from 2100 to 1600 B.C., with Yu as the first emperor, but there is little proof that the dynasty actually existed. Below is a...
The practice of archaeology in China has been rooted in modern Chinese history. The intellectual and political reformers of the 1920s challenged the historicity of the legendary inventors of Chinese culture, such as Shennong, the Divine Farmer, and Huangdi, the Yellow Emperor.
- Timeline of Chinese History
- Prehistoric China — Up to About 1600 BC
- Ancient China
- Imperial China
- The Qin and Han Dynasties
- China's Dark Ages
- Medieval China
- The Final Dynasties (1368–1912) — Renaissance and More Foreign Rule
- The Republic of China Era
- Modern China
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Pre-1600 BC, China is charted mainly by legends and prehistoric evidence. The ancient China era was c. 1600–221 BC. The imperial era was 221 BC – 1912 AD, from China's unification under Qin rule until the end of the Qing Dynasty, the Republic of China era was from 1912 until 1949, and the modern China era from 1949 until the present day. Read on for a snapshot of China's historical timeline and some key events. There’s also a simple comparison with the world’s cultural development.
Prehistoric China's chronology is dividedinto the Paleolithic Age, the Neolithic Age, and the Bronze Age. Without any reliable historical records, most of what has been pieced together about prehistoric life in China comes from speculation about human activity at archaeological sites and unearthed relics. The rest comes from what might be truth within Chinese mythology.
Chinese civilization began along the Yellow River in the Shang era, and spread from there when Bronze Age culture reached its peak. Then, traditional Chinese philosophies, such as Confucianism and Daoism, developed in the feudal Zhou era as China expanded in territory and population. Ancient China finally fractured into warring kingdoms for 200 years, and its reunification marked the start of the imperial China age.
From the first centralized feudal empire, the Qin Dynasty, which was established in 221 BC, until the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1912, this period is known as the imperial era of China. The imperial China period makes up the bulk of Chinese history. With the cyclical rise and fall of dynasties, Chinese civilization was cultivated and prospered in times of peace, then reformed after rebellions and conquests.
The Qin and Han dynasties were the initial period of the Chinese empire. During this period, a number of institutions were established that laid the foundation of the basic political system for the next 2,000 years. The short-lived Qin Dynasty was the first to unite China as a country under an emperor instead of a ruling clan. A bureaucratic government was introduced, and was continued by the less extreme Han Dynasty.
When the Han Dynasty fell into decline, it fractured into the Three Kingdoms Period (220–265).After the Three Kingdoms Period came the Jin Dynasty, which thenconquered most of China (265–420). Its hold on power was tenuous, however, andChina again fractured, this time into the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589). During this messy time, many religions emerged and Buddhism was popular among the barbarian kingdoms in North China. After almost 400 years of chaos ended, the Sui Dynasty even...
China's Middle Ages saw steady growth through a series of regime changes. China went from having four warring kingdoms to being the most culturally sophisticated and technologically developed nation. Finally, it was consumed by the rise and fall of the phenomenal Mongol Empire, which stretched to Europe.
In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the imperial social structure (the royal/rich class, the scholarly class, the working class, and the slaves) and imperial examinations continued. However, they became increasingly inadequate in the ages of exploration, colonization, and industrialization.
The Republican Revolution of 1911, led by Sun Yat-sen, ended the rule of the Qing Dynasty. However, the Republic of China could not be firmly established across China, with civil war ensuing for decades.
Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, China has entered a Communist era of stability, with the Reform and Opening Up policy of 1978 bringing in China's phenomenal economic growth.
1. Ancient China Maps 2. Ancient Chinese Culture (1600–221 BC) — Development and Features 3. Beijing History — Strategic Location, Historic Capital, Major City 4. The History of the Great Wall — 7+ Dynasties; 2,000+ years
May 06, 2019 · The history of China reaches back over 4,000 years. In that time, China has created a culture rich in philosophy and the arts. China has seen the invention of amazing technologies such as silk, paper, gunpowder, and many other products. Over the millennia, China has fought hundreds of wars.
- The First Dynasties
- The Dynasty
- The Spring & Autumn Period & The Warring States
- The Qin Dynasty
- The Chu-Han Contention
- The Han Dynasty
- The Fall of Han & Rise of The Xin Dynasty
- The Fall of Tang & Rise of The
Well before the advent of recognizable civilization in the region, the land was occupied by hominids. Peking Man, a skull fossil discovered in 1927 CE near Beijing, lived in the area between 700,000 to 200,000 years ago, and Yuanmou Man, whose remains were found in Yuanmou in 1965 CE, inhabited the land 1.7 million years ago. Evidence uncovered with these finds shows that these early inhabitants knew how to fashion stone tools and use fire.While it is commonly accepted that human beings origi...
From these small villages and farming communities grew centralized government; the first of which was the prehistoric Xia Dynasty (c. 2070-1600 BCE). The Xia Dynasty was considered, for many years, more myth than fact until excavations in the 1960s and 1970s CE uncovered sites which argued strongly for its existence. Bronze works and tombs clearly point to an evolutionary period of development between disparate Stone Age villages and a recognizable cohesive civilization.The dynasty was founde...
Around the year 1046 BCE, King Wu, of the province of Zhou, rebelled against King Zhou of Shang and defeated his forces at the Battle of Muye, establishing the Zhou Dynasty (c. 1046- 256 BCE). 1046-771 BCE marks the Western Zhou Period while 771-226 BCE marks the Eastern Zhou Period. The Mandate of Heaven was invoked by the Duke of Zhou, King Wu’s younger brother, to legitimize the revolt as he felt the Shang were no longer acting in the interests of the people.The Mandate of Heaven was thus...
During the Spring and Autumn Period (772-476 BCE and so called from the Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the state at the time and an early source mentioning General Sun-Tzu), the Zhou government became decentralized in their move to the new capital at Luoyang, marking the end of the 'Western Zhou' period and the beginning of 'Eastern Zhou'. This is the period most noted for advances in philosophy, poetry, and the arts and saw the rise of Confucian, Taoist, and Mohist thoug...
Shi Huangdi thus established the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE), also known as the Imperial Era in China. He ordered the destruction of the walled fortifications which had separated the different states and commissioned the building of a great wall along the northern border of his kingdom. Though little remains today of Shi Huangdi’s original wall, The Great Wall of China was begun under his rule.Shi Huangdi also strengthened the infrastructure through road building which helped to increase trade...
With the fall of the Qin Dynasty, China was plunged into chaos. Two generals emerged among the forces which rebelled against the Qin: Liu-Bang of Hanzhong and General Xiang-Yu of the state of Chu, who fought for control of the government. Xiang-Yu, who had proven himself the most formidable opponent of the Qin, awarded Liu-Bang the title of 'King of the Han' in recognition of Liu-Bang’s decisive defeat of the Qin forces at their capital of Xianyang.The two former allies quickly became antagon...
The resultant peace initiated by Gaozu brought the stability necessary for culture to again thrive and grow. Trade with the west began during this time and arts and technology increased in sophistication. The Han are considered the first dynasty to write their history down but, as Shi Huangdi destroyed so many of the written records of those who came before him, this claim is often disputed. There is no doubt, however, that great advances were made under the Han in every area of culture.The Y...
The rise of the Xin Dynasty ended the period known as Western Han and its demise led to the establishment of the Eastern Han period. Emperor Guang-Wu returned the lands to the wealthy estate owners and restored order in the land, maintaining the policies of the earlier Western Han rulers. Guang-Wu, in reclaiming lands lost under the Xin Dynasty, was forced to spend much of his time putting down rebellions and re-establishing Chinese rule in the regions of modern-day Korea and Vietnam.The Trun...
The Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) is considered the 'golden age' of Chinese civilization. Gao-Tzu prudently maintained and improved upon the bureaucracy initiated by the Sui Dynasty while dispensing with extravagant military operations and building projects. With minor modifications, the bureaucratic policies of the Tang Dynasty are still in use in Chinese government in the modern day.Despite his efficient rule, Gao-Tzu was deposed by his son, Li-Shimin, in 626 CE. Having assassinated his father,...
Still, the central government was not universally admired and regional uprisings were a regular concern. The most important of these was the An Shi Rebellion (also known as the An Lushan Rebellion) of 755 CE. General An Lushan, a favorite of the imperial court, recoiled against what he saw as excessive extravagance in government. With a force of over 100,000 troops, he rebelled and declared himself the new emperor by the precepts of the Mandate of Heaven.Although his revolt was put down by 76...
- Joshua J. Mark
- Chronological Order and Brief History of China
- History of Chinese Culture
- Origin and Prehistory of China
- Ancient Age
- Imperial Era
- Modern Age
As we know that this article is very long, we have prepared a brief history of China for those who do not have time to read the whole article. It is a short summaryand chronology divided into several points: 1. 40,000 B.C. – Appearance of Homo Sapiens in China 2. 17,000 BC – First Ceramics in China 3. 10,000 B.C. – Cultivation of rice and millet 4. 2,500 B.C. – Longshan Culture 5. 2,100 B.C. – Kingdom of Erlitou or Xia Dynasty 6. 1,700 B.C. – Shang Dynasty 7. 1,050 B.C. – Zhou Dynasty 8. 700 B.C. – Construction of the Great Wall begins 1. 221 B.C. – Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty 2. 206 B.C. – Han Dynasty 3. 100 B.C. – Opening of the Silk Road 4. 265 – Jin Dynasty 5. 581 – Sui Dynasty and construction of the Grand Canal begins 6. 618 – Tang Dynasty and Expansion of Buddhism in China 7. 960 – Song Dynasty and trade boom 8. 1271 – Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo arrives in China 9. 1368 – Ming Dynasty 10. 1644 – Qing Dynasty 11. 1856 – Opium Wars 12. 1911 – Republic of China 13....
The history of Chinese Culture is divided into ages of history that are different from those of the West. In Europe are the Ancient, Middle Ages, Modern and Contemporary. But in China there are only three, Ancient, Imperial, and Modern. This is because China never had a Middle Agesas we know it. For power always fell to the officials of the Empire, not to the aristocracy or the nobility. Although there were small periods of exception to this rule.
Many species of Homo began to populate the territory of present-day China tens of thousands of years ago, including the famous Homo Erectus Pekinensis. But we, the Homo Sapiens, would have arrived only 40,000 years ago. The appearance of the first ceramicsis very important, 17,000 years ago, even before becoming sedentary or learning to cultivate. This is a milestone in the history of humanity, because no other human civilization managed to create ceramics so quickly. 10,000 years ago they learned to grow riceon the banks of the Yangtse River and millet on the Huang He River. They also began to domesticate the first animals and use jade. Sedentarization gave rise to China’s first cultures. These are the cultures of Peilikan, Cishan, Yangshao, Dawenkou, and Hongshan. They were all located on the banks of the Yellow River and its tributaries.
In the history of China the Ancient Age is the basis of its culture. At this time appeared the first dynasties of China, the birth of great philosophers such as Confucius, Mencius and Lao Tse, and the entry of Buddhism in China. We know the history of Ancient China well thanks to the historian Sima Qian. This man lived in the 1st century B.C. and wrote the entire history of China from its beginnings to his own days. He is undoubtedly the most important Chinese historian in history.
In the history of China, the Imperial Age is a period apart. China’s dynasties would no longer be governed by nobility, but by officials who gained access to the administration through imperial examinations. Anyone could take these exams (if they saved enough money to pay for them), and if they passed they were admitted to the imperial administration. The officials were in charge of all government tasks; collecting taxes for the central government, recruiting levies, filing information, creating population censuses, governing provinces, etc… As the Mandarin civil service was not a hereditary position, the central government made sure to avoid possible armed rebellions. Although it could do little against corruption, which increased in the last decades of each Chinese dynasty.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, China began to receive Western influences. But due to the tremendous traditional Chinese roots, it was not able to industrialize as quickly as Japan did. As a result, China suffered several anti-western revolts during the Qing dynasty, such as the boxer rebellion. And it was also defeated in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1895, losing control of Korea and Taiwan.
Chinese legendary history can be traced back to 2697 bc, the first year of Huang Ti (Chinese: Yellow Emperor), who was followed by many successors and by the three dynasties, the Hsia, the Shang, and the Chou. Recent archaeological findings, however, have established an…
The rise and fall of the great dynasties forms a thread that runs through Chinese history, almost from the beginning. Since the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1st, 1949, China has become a socialist society and become stronger and stronger. Timeline of Chinese History (Click to enlarge)
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