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      • In the 14th and 15th centuries, natural philosophy was one of many branches of philosophy, but was not a specialized field of study. The first person appointed as a specialist in Natural Philosophy per se was Jacopo Zabarella, at the University of Padua in 1577. Modern meanings of the terms science and scientists date only to the 19th century.
      en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_philosophy
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  2. Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature is the philosophical study of physics, that is, nature and the physical universe. It was dominant before the development of modern science. From the ancient world until the 19th century, natural philosophy was the common term for the study of physics, a broad term that included botany, zoology, anthropology, and chemistry as well as what we now call physics. It was in the 19th century that the concept of science received its modern shape, with different

  3. A History of Natural Philosophy: From the Ancient World to the Nineteenth Century. 1st Edition. Natural philosophy encompassed all natural phenomena of the physical world. It sought to discover the physical causes of all natural effects and was little concerned with mathematics.

    • (20)
    • Cambridge University Press
    • Edward Grant
    • 2007
  4. Natural philosophy became the 'Great Mother of the Sciences', which by the nineteenth century had nourished the manifold chemical, physical, and biological sciences to maturity, thus enabling them to leave the 'Great Mother' and emerge as the multiplicity of independent sciences we know today.

    • Edward Grant
    • 2007
    • Origin and Evolution of The Term
    • Scope
    • Branches and Subject Matter
    • History
    • Current Work in The Philosophy of Science and Nature

    See also: Nature in Philosophy and Philosophy The term natural philosophy preceded current usage of natural science(i.e. empirical science). Empirical science historically developed out of philosophy or, more specifically, natural philosophy. Natural philosophy was distinguished from the other precursor of modern science, natural history, in that n...

    In Plato‘s earliest known dialogue, Charmides distinguishes between scienceor bodies of knowledge that produce a physical result, and those that do not. Natural philosophy has been categorized as a theoretical rather than a practical branch of philosophy (like ethics). Sciences that guide arts and draw on the philosophical knowledge of nature may p...

    Major branches of natural philosophyinclude astronomy and cosmology, the study of nature on the grand scale; etiology, the study of (intrinsic and sometimes extrinsic) causes; the study of chance, probability and randomness; the study of elements; the study of the infinite and the unlimited (virtual or actual); the study of matter; mechanics, the s...

    For the history of natural philosophy prior to the 17th century, see History of science, History of physics, History of chemistry, and History of astronomy. Mankind’s mental engagement with nature certainly predates civilization and the record of history. Philosophical, and specifically non-religious thought about the natural world, goes back to an...

    In the middle of the 20th century, Ernst Mayr’s discussions on the teleology of nature brought up issues that were dealt with previously by Aristotle (regarding final cause) and Immanuel Kant(regarding reflective judgment). Especially since the mid-20th-century European crisis, some thinkers argued the importance of looking at nature from a broad p...

  5. Natural philosophy became the 'Great Mother of the Sciences', which by the nineteenth century had nourished the manifold chemical, physical, and biological sciences to maturity, thus enabling them to leave the 'Great Mother' and emerge as the multiplicity of independent sciences we know today. Read more

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