Oct 17, 2021 · Twenty-ninth Sunday in Ordinary Time, Oct. 17, 2021, 6:30 PM Mass #HolyFamilyArtesia
1 day ago · Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina ( German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the ruler of the Habsburg dominions from 1740 until her death in 1780, and the only woman to hold the position. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Transylvania, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian ...
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1 day ago · The church teaches that it is the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church established by Jesus Christ in his Great Commission, and that its bishops are the successors of Christ's apostles. It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, as passed down by holy tradition.
- Anthropological Causes
- Modern Cases
- Figurative Use of The Term
- List of Witch Trials
- Further Reading
- External Links
The wide distribution of the practice of witch-hunts in geographically and culturally separated societies (Europe, Africa, New Guinea) since the 1960s has triggered interest in the anthropological background of this behaviour. The belief in magic and divination, and attempts to use magic to influence personal well-being (to increase life, win love, etc.) are universal across human cultures. Belief in witchcraft has been shown to have similarities in societies throughout the world. It presents a framework to explain the occurrence of otherwise random misfortunes such as sickness or death, and the witch sorcerer provides an image of evil. Reports on indigenous practices in the Americas, Asia and Africa collected during the early modern age of explorationhave been taken to suggest that not just the belief in witchcraft but also the periodic outbreak of witch-hunts are a human cultural universal. One study finds that witchcraft beliefs are associated with antisocial attitudes: lower lev...
Ancient Near East
Punishment for malevolent magic is addressed in the earliest law codes which were preserved; in both ancient Egypt and Babylonia, where it played a conspicuous part. The Code of Hammurabi (18th century BC short chronology) prescribes that
No laws concerning magic survive from Classical Athens.:133 However, cases concerning the harmful effects of pharmaka – an ambiguous term that might mean "poison", "medicine", or "magical drug" – do survive, especially those where the drug caused injury or death.:133–134 Antiphon's speech "Against the Stepmother for Poisoning" tells of the case of a woman accused of plotting to murder her husband with a pharmakon; a slave had previously been executed for the crime, but the son of the victim c...
The 6th century AD Getica of Jordanes records a persecution and expulsion of witches among the Goths in a mythical account of the origin of the Huns. The ancient fabled King Filimeris said to have
Witch-hunts still occur today in societies where belief in magic is prevalent. In most cases, these are instances of lynching and burnings, reported with some regularity from much of Sub-Saharan Africa, from Saudi Arabia and from Papua New Guinea. In addition, there are some countries that have legislation against the practice of sorcery. The only country where witchcraft remains legally punishable by deathis Saudi Arabia. Witch-hunts in modern times are continuously reported by the UNHCR of the UNO as a massive violation of human rights. Most of the accused are women and children but can also be elderly people or marginalised groups of the community such as albinos and the HIV-infected. These victims are often considered burdens to the community, and as a result are often driven out, starved to death, or killed violently, sometimes by their own families in acts of social cleansing. The causes of witch-hunts include poverty, epidemics, social crises and lack of education. The leader...
Western media frequently write of a 'Stalinist witch-hunt' or a 'McCarthyite witch-hunt, In these cases, the word 'witch-hunt' is used as a metaphorto illustrate the brutal and ruthless way in which political opponents are denigrated and persecuted.Andreassen, Reidun Laura and Liv Helene Willumsen (eds.), Steilneset Memorial. Art Architecture History. Stamsund: Orkana, 2014. ISBN 978-82-8104-245-2Behringer, Wolfgang. Witches and Witch Hunts: A Global History.Malden Massachusetts: Polity Press, 2004.Briggs, Robin. 'Many reasons why': witchcraft and the problem of multiple explanation, in Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Studies in Culture and Belief, ed. Jonathan Barry, Marianne Hester, and...Burns, William E. Witch hunts in Europe and America: an encyclopedia(2003)
1 day ago · The largest organisation that retains Latin in official and quasi-official contexts is the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church required that Mass be carried out in Latin until the Second Vatican Council of 1962–1965, which permitted the use of the vernacular. Latin remains the language of the Roman Rite.
- Baptist Affiliations
- Baptist Beliefs and Principles
- Places of Worship
- Controversies That Have Shaped Baptists
- See Also
Baptist historian Bruce Gourley outlines four main views of Baptist origins: 1. the modern scholarly consensus that the movement traces its origin to the 17th century via the English Separatists, 2. the view that it was an outgrowth of the Anabaptistmovement of believers baptism begun in 1525 on the European continent, 3. the perpetuity view which assumes that the Baptist faith and practicehas existed since the time of Christ, and 4. the successionist view, or "Baptist successionism", which argues that Baptist churchesactually existed in an unbroken chain since the time of Christ.
Many Baptist churches choose to affiliate with organizational groups that provide fellowship without control. The largest such group in the US is the Southern Baptist Convention. There also are a substantial number of smaller cooperative groups. Finally, there are Independent Baptist churches that choose to remain independent of any denomination, organization, or association. It has been suggested that a primary Baptist principle is that local Baptist Churches are independent and self-governing,and if so the term 'Baptist denomination' may be considered somewhat incongruous. In 1905, Baptists worldwide formed the Baptist World Alliance (BWA).The BWA's goals include caring for the needy, leading in world evangelism and defending human rights and religious freedom.
In 2010, 100 million Christians identify themselves as Baptist or belong to Baptist-type churches. According to a denomination census released in 2020, it has 241 Baptist denominations members in 126 countries, 169,000 churches and 47,000,000 baptized members. In 2020, according to the researcher Sébastien Fath of the CNRS, the movement would have around 170 million believers in the world. Among the censuses carried out by the Baptist denominations in 2020, those which claimed the most member...
Qualification for membership
Membership policies vary due to the autonomy of churches, but the traditional method by which an individual becomes a member of a church is through believer's baptism(which is a public profession of faith in Jesus, followed by water baptism). Most baptists do not believe that baptism is a requirement for salvation, but rather a public expression of one's inner repentance and faith.Therefore, some churches will admit into membership persons who make a profession without believer's baptism. In...
Baptists, like other Christians, are defined by school of thought—some of it common to all orthodox and evangelical groups and a portion of it distinctive to Baptists. Through the years, different Baptist groups have issued confessions of faith—without considering them to be creeds—to express their particular doctrinal distinctions in comparison to other Christians as well as in comparison to other Baptists. Baptist denominations are traditionally seen as belonging to two parties, General Baptists who uphold Arminian theology and Particular Baptists who uphold Reformed theology. During the holiness movement, some General Baptists accepted the teaching of a second work of grace and formed denominations that emphasized this belief, such as the Ohio Valley Association of the Christian Baptist Churches of God and the Holiness Baptist Association. Most Baptists are evangelical in doctrine, but Baptist beliefs can vary due to the congregational governance system that gives autonomy to ind...
In Baptist churches, worship service is part of the life of the Church and includes praise (Christian music), worship, of prayers to God, a sermon based on Bible, offering, and periodically the Lord's Supper. In many churches, there are services adapted for children, even teenagers.Prayer meetings are also held during the week.
The architecture is sober and the latin crossis one of the only spiritual symbols that can usually be seen on the building of a Baptist church and that identifies the place where it belongs.
Baptist churches established elementary and secondary schools, bible colleges, colleges and universities as early as the 1680s in England,before continuing in various countries.
In matters of sexuality, several Baptist churches are promoting the virginity pledge to young Baptist Christians, who are invited to engage in a public ceremony at sexual abstinence until Christian marriage. This pact is often symbolized by a purity ring. Programs like True Love Waits, founded in 1993 by the Southern Baptist Conventionhave been developed to support the commitments. In some Baptist churches, young adults and unmarried couples are encouraged to marry early in order to live a sexuality according to the will of God. Some books are specialized on the subject, such as the book The Act of Marriage: The Beauty of Sexual Love published in 1976 by Baptist pastor Tim LaHaye and his wife Beverly LaHaye who was a pioneer in the teaching of Christian sexuality as a gift from God and part of a flourishing Christian marriage.
Baptists have faced many controversies in their 400-year history, controversies of the level of crises. Baptist historian Walter Shurden says the word "crisis" comes from the Greek word meaning "to decide." Shurden writes that contrary to the presumed negative view of crises, some controversies that reach a crisis level may actually be "positive and highly productive." He claims that even schism, though never ideal, has often produced positive results. In his opinion crises among Baptists each have become decision-moments that shaped their future.Some controversies that have shaped Baptists include the "missions crisis", the "slavery crisis", the "landmark crisis", and the "modernist crisis".
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