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  1. The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

    Holy Roman Empire - Wikipedia
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  3. Holy Roman Empire - Wikipedia

    The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.

  4. Holy Roman Empire | Map, Definition, History, Capital ...

    Oct 29, 2020 · Nature of the empire The precise term Sacrum Romanum Imperium dates only from 1254, though the term Holy Empire reaches back to 1157, and the term Roman Empire was used from 1034 to denote the lands under Conrad II ’s rule. The term “Roman emperor” is older, dating from Otto II (died 983).

  5. Holy Roman Empire - New World Encyclopedia
    • Institutions
    • History
    • Analysis
    • Successive German Empires
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    From the High Middle Ages onwards, the Reich was stamped by a coexistence of the Empire with the struggle of the dukes of the local territories to take power away from it. As opposed to the rulers of the West Frankish lands, which later became France, the Emperors never managed to gain much control over the lands that they formally owned. Instead, Emperors were forced to grant more and more powers to the individual dukes in their respective territories. This process began in the twelfth century and was more or less concluded with the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. Several attempts were made to reverse this degradation of the Reich'sformer glory, but failed. Formally, the Reich comprised the King, to be crowned Emperor by the pope (until 1508), on one side, and the Reichsstände(imperial estates) on the other.

    From the East Franks to the Investiture Controversy

    The Holy Roman Empire is usually considered to have been founded at the latest in 962 by Otto I the Great, the first German holder of the title of Emperor. Although some date the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire from the coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans in 800, Charlemagne himself more typically used the title king of the Franks. This title also makes clearer that the Frankish Kingdom covered an area that included modern-day France and Germanyand was thus the kernel of bot...

    Under the Hohenstaufen

    Conrad III came to the throne in 1138, being the first of the Hohenstaufendynasty, which was about to restore the glory of the Empire even under the new conditions of the 1122 Concordat of Worms. It was Frederick I "Barbarossa" (king 1152, Emperor 1155–1190) who first called the Empire "holy," with which he intended to address mainly law and legislation. Also, under Barbarossa, the idea of the "Romanness" of the Empire culminated again, which seemed to be an attempt to justify the Emperor's p...

    Rise of the territories after the Staufen

    After the death of Frederick II in 1250, none of the dynasties worthy of producing the king proved able to do so, and the leading dukes elected several competing kings. The time from 1246 (beginning with the election of Heinrich Raspe and William of Holland) to 1273, when Rudolph I of Habsburg was elected king, is commonly referred to as the Interregnum. During the Interregnum, much of what was left of imperial authority was lost, as the princes were given time to consolidate their holdings a...

    It has been said that modern history of Germany was primarily predetermined by three factors: the Reich, the Reformation, and the later dualism between Austria and Prussia. Many attempts have been made to explain why the Reichnever managed to gain a strong centralized power over the territories, as opposed to neighboring France. Some reasons include: 1. The Reich had been a very federal body from the beginning: again, as opposed to France, which had mostly been part of the Roman Empire, in the eastern parts of the Frankish kingdom, the Germanic tribes later comprising the German nation (Saxons, Thuringians, Franks, Bavarians, Alamanni or Swabians) were much more independent and reluctant to cede power to a central authority. All attempts to make the kingdom hereditary failed; instead, the king was always elected. Later, every candidate for the king had to make promises to his electorate, the so-called Wahlkapitulationen(election capitulations), thus granting the territories more and...

    After the unification of Germany as a nation state in 1871, the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was also known as the Old Empire (First Reich) while the new empire was known as the New Empire, second Empire, or Second Reich. Adolf Hitler called his regime the Third Reich.

    Angermeier, Heninz. Das Alte Reich in der deutschen Geschichte. Studien über Kontinuitäten und Zäsuren, München: Campus 1991 ISBN 9783593371009
    Bryce, James. The Holy Roman Empire New York, Schocken Books, 1967 ISBN 0333036093
    Criswell, David. The Rise of the Holy Roman Empire. Charleston, SC: Fortress/Adonai Press, 2003 ISBN 9781591097303
    Hartmann, Peter Claus. Kulturgeschichte des Heiligen Römischen Reiches 1648 bis 1806. Wien: Böhlau, 2001 ISBN 9783205993087

    All links retrieved January 12, 2018. 1. The constitutional structure of the Reich 2. Andrea van Dülmen List of Wars of the Holy Roman Empire Timeline. World History at KMLA. 3. Deutschland beim Tode Kaiser Karls IV. 1378 (Germany at the death of emperor Charles IV.) taken from "Meyers Kleines Konversationslexikon in sechs Bänden. Bd. 2. Leipzig u. Wien : Bibliogr. Institut 1908," map inserted after page 342 4. The Holy Roman Empire in 1648 5. The Holy Roman Empire in 1789 (Interactive map)

  6. What was the Holy Roman Empire? |

    Jan 02, 2020 · The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western empire of Rome. Many people confuse the Holy Roman Empire with the Roman Empire that existed during the New Testament period. However, these two empires were different in both time period and location. The Roman Empire (27 B.C.

  7. Holy Roman Empire - Empire and papacy | Britannica

    Best known was the addition by Frederick I Barbarossa, in 1157, of the word sacrum to the name of the empire, which then became the Sacrum Imperium (Holy Empire) as a counterbalance to the Sancta Ecclesia (Holy Church). Equally characteristic was the canonization of Charlemagne by Frederick’s antipope Paschal III in 1165.

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  8. What Was the Holy Roman Empire? 7 Key Questions Answered ...
    • What was the Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire was a notional realm in central Europe, which lasted for around 1,000 years, until 1806. Advertisement.
    • So why did it have that name? It was not until 1254 that the title of Holy Roman Empire was applied, but the origins of the name date back to AD 800, more than 300 years after the western half of the Roman Empire had collapsed.
    • How did the Empire develop after that? After Charlemagne’s death in AD 814, his squabbling heirs broke up the Empire and the title of Roman Emperor became fairly meaningless for over a century.
    • What relationship did these latter Roman Emperors have with the Popes? The Empire, having been created and reinforced by the papacy at times of trouble, enjoyed a complex and frequently difficult relationship with the bishops of Rome.
  9. The Holy Roman Empire | Lineage

    Jul 04, 2017 · The Holy Roman Empire What was The Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a grand idea that didn’t really materialize into an equally grand reality. The Empire was founded in 800 AD by Charlemagne and was the most powerful state in early medieval Europe, encompassing Germany, Northern Italy, and Burgundy.

  10. The Holy Roman Empire - Vivid Maps

    Dec 01, 2016 · The Holy Roman Empire (962 – 1806) Nominally these states in the XIII century were sovereign states under the protection of an elected emperor, but in reality, the Emperor’s power over the states was not guaranteed. States behaved like fully autonomous entities: had their army, taxes, tolls, rules, etc.

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