Luxembourg has been a grand duchy since 15 March 1815, when it was created from territory of the former Duchy of Luxembourg. It was in personal union with the United Kingdom of the Netherlands until 1890 under the House of Orange-Nassau .
The Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg constitutes the House of Luxembourg-Nassau, headed by the sovereign Grand Duke, and in which the throne of the grand duchy is hereditary.
In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
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Luxembourg was an independent fief of the Holy Roman Empire until 1353, when the Luxembourg emperor Charles IV elevated it to the status of a duchy for his half-brother, Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg. Upon the extinction of the Luxembourg dynasty, the duchy passed to the House of Valois-Burgundy in 1443, and then to the Archduchy of Austria in
Prince Félix was born on 3 June 1984 at the Grand Duchess Charlotte Maternity Hospital in Luxembourg. He is the second of the five children of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa, the others being: Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume, Prince Louis, Princess Alexandra and Prince Sébastien.
All Dutch and Luxembourgish monarchs since 1815 have been senior members of the House of Nassau. However, in 1890 in the Netherlands and in 1912 in Luxembourg, the male lines of heirs to the two thrones became extinct, so that since then, they have descended in the female line from the House of Nassau.
By June 2016, announced that it would "invest more than US$200 million in research, technology demonstration, and in the direct purchase of equity in companies relocating to Luxembourg."  By April 2017, three space mining corporations had established headquarters established in Luxembourg.
The two football clubs of the city of Luxembourg; Racing FC Union Luxembourg and FC RM Hamm Benfica, play in the country's highest league, the Luxembourg National Division. The 8,000-seater Stade Josy Barthel hosts the Luxembourg national football team , and CAL Spora Luxembourg , which with 400 members is the nation's largest athletics club.
photo: Wikipedia Located in the heart of Luxembourg City, the Grand Ducal Palace is the official palace of the Grand Duke and is used for all official functions. Owned by the State, it is one of two palaces made available to the Grand Duke under the Constitution of Luxembourg.
of Nassau and Luxembourg The House of Nassau-Weilburg , a branch of the House of Nassau , ruled a division of the County of Nassau , which was a state in what is now Germany , then part of the Holy Roman Empire , from 1344 to 1806.