An alternative theory, suggested by Eric P. Hamp, is that Phrygian was most closely related to Italo-Celtic languages. Inscriptions. The Phrygian epigraphical material is divided into two distinct subcorpora, Old Phrygian and New Phrygian. These attest different stages of the Phrygian language; are written with different alphabets and upon ...
t. e. In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a hypothetical grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities.
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Download Free PDF. Download Free PDF. ITALO-CELTIC ORIGINS AND PREHISTORIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE. ... 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper.
- Frederik Kortlandt
Phrygian provides in several respects the missing link between Greek and Armenian. In particular, the paradigms of the middle voice appear to have been more extensive than what we find in the separate languages. The archaic character of the Phrygian language is corroborated by the Indo-Iranian and Italo-Celtic evidence.
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SIL Ethnologue lists six living Celtic languages, of which four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Goidelic languages (i.e. Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which are both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (i.e. Welsh and Breton, which are both descended from Common Brittonic). The other two, Cornish (a Brittonic language) and Manx (a Goidelic language), died out in modern times with their presumed last native speakers in 1777 and 1974 respectively. For both these languages, however, revitalisationmovements have led to the adoption of these languages by adults and children and produced some native speakers. Taken together, there were roughly one million native speakers of Celtic languages as of the 2000s.In 2010, there were more than 1.4 million speakers of Celtic languages.
Celtic is divided into various branches: 1. Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th century BC). Anciently spoken in Switzerland and in Northern-Central Italy. Coins with Lepontic inscriptions have been found in Noricum and Gallia Narbonensis. 2. Celtiberian, also known as Eastern or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic, anciently spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern part of Old Castile and south of Aragon. Modern provinces of Segovia, Burgos, Soria, Guadalajara, Cuenca, Zaragoza and Teruel. The relationship of Celtiberian with Gallaecian, in the northwest of the peninsula, is uncertain. 3. Gallaecian, also known as Western or Northwestern Hispano-Celtic, anciently spoken in the northwest of the peninsula (modern Northern Portugal, Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria). 4. Gaulish languages, including Galatian and possibly Noric. These languages were once spoken in a wide arc from Belgium to Turkey. They are now all extinct. 5. Brittonic, spoken in Great Britain. In...
Although there are many differences between the individual Celtic languages, they do show many family resemblances. 1. consonant mutations(Insular Celtic only) 2. inflected prepositions(Insular Celtic only) 3. two grammatical genders (modern Insular Celtic only; Old Irish and the Continental languages had three genders, although Gaulish may have merged the neuter and masculine in its later forms) 4. a vigesimal number system (counting by twenties) 4.1. Cornish hwetek ha dew ugens"fifty-six" (literally "sixteen and two twenty") 5. verb–subject–object (VSO) word order (probably Insular Celtic only) 6. an interplay between the subjunctive, future, imperfect, and habitual, to the point that some tenses and moods have ousted others 7. an impersonal or autonomous verb form serving as a passive or intransitive 7.1. Welsh dysgaf "I teach" vs. dysgir"is taught, one teaches" 7.2. Irish múinim "I teach" vs. múintear"is taught, one teaches" 8. no infinitives, replaced by a quas...
It has been suggested that several poorly-documented languages may possibly have been Celtic. 1. Ancient Belgian 2. Camunic is an extinct language which was spoken in the first millennium BC in the Val Camonica and Valtellina valleys of the Central Alps. It has most recently been proposed to be a Celtic language. 3. Ivernic 4. Ligurian was spoken in the Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling the southeast French and northwest Italian coasts, including parts of Tuscany, Elba island and Corsica. Xavier Delamarre argues that Ligurian was a Celtic language, similar to Gaulish. The Ligurian-Celtic question is also discussed by Barruol (1999). Ancient Ligurian is either listed as Celtic (epigraphic),or Para-Celtic (onomastic). 5. Lusitanian was spoken in the area between the Douro and Tagus rivers of western Iberia (a region straddling the present border of Portugal and Spain). It is known from only five inscriptions and various place names. It is an Indo-European language and some schol...Ball, Martin J. & James Fife (ed.) (1993). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.Borsley, Robert D. & Ian Roberts (ed.) (1996). The Syntax of the Celtic Languages: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521481600.Cowgill, Warren (1975). "The origins of the Insular Celtic conjunct and absolute verbal endings". In H. Rix (ed.). Flexion und Wortbildung: Akten der V. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft...Celtic Linguistics, 1700–1850(2000). London; New York: Routledge. 8 vols comprising 15 texts originally published between 1706 and 1844.Markey, Thomas L. (2006). “Early Celticity in Slovenia and at Rhaetic Magrè (Schio)”. In: Linguistica 46 (1), 145-72. https://doi.org/10.4312/linguistica.46.1.145-172.Sims-Williams, Patrick. “An Alternative to ‘Celtic from the East’ and ‘Celtic from the West’.” In: Cambridge Archaeological Journal30, no. 3 (2020): 511–29. doi:10.1017/S0959774320000098.Stifter, David. "The early Celtic epigraphic evidence and early literacy in Germanic languages". In: NOWELE - North-Western European Language Evolution, Volume 73, Issue 1, Apr 2020, pp. 123–152. I...
Though specific Italo-Celtic innovations are few, the languages of this branch developed along parallel lines and preserved important traces of an original linguistic system which contained a wide variety of different formations with a considerable time depth. The material has too often been interpreted in terms of other languages.