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      • An alternative theory, suggested by Eric P. Hamp, is that Phrygian was most closely related to Italo-Celtic languages.
      en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygian_language
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    What are the two types of Phrygian language?

    What is the Italo-Celtic language?

    Where does the Phrygian language belong in the Indo-European family?

    Is Celtic related to the Italic people?

  2. An alternative theory, suggested by Eric P. Hamp, is that Phrygian was most closely related to Italo-Celtic languages. Inscriptions. The Phrygian epigraphical material is divided into two distinct subcorpora, Old Phrygian and New Phrygian. These attest different stages of the Phrygian language; are written with different alphabets and upon ...

  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Italo-CelticItalo-Celtic - Wikipedia

    In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a hypothetical grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities. They are usually considered to be innovations, likely to have developed after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European language. It is also possible that some of these are not innovations, but shared conservative features, i.e. origin

    • Discovery and Decipherment
    • Classification
    • Inscriptions
    • Alphabet
    • Phonology
    • Grammar
    • Vocabulary
    • Phrygian Poetry
    • See Also
    • References

    Ancient authors like Herodotus and Hesychius have provided us with a few dozen words assumed to be Phrygian, so-called glosses. In modern times the first monument with a Phrygian text, found at Ortaköy (classical Orcistus), was described in 1752. In 1800 at Yazılıkaya (classical Nakoleia) two more inscriptions were discovered. On one of them the wo...

    Phrygian is a member of the Indo-European linguistic family, but because of the fragmentary evidence, its exact position within that family is uncertain. Phrygian shares important features with Greek and Armenian. Between the 19th and the first half of the 20th century Phrygian was mostly considered a satəm language, and thus closer to Armenian and...

    The Phrygian epigraphical material is divided into two distinct subcorpora, Old Phrygian and New Phrygian. These attest different stages of the Phrygian language; are written with different alphabets and upon different materials; and have different geographical distributions. Old Phrygian is attested in 395 inscriptions in Anatolia and beyond. They...

    From ca. 800 till 300 BCE Phrygians used the Old-Phrygian alphabet of nineteen letters derived from the Phoenician alphabet. This script was usually written from left to right ("dextroverse"). The signs of this script are: About 15 percent of the inscriptions are written from right to left ("sinistroverse"), like Phoenician; in those cases the sign...

    It has long been claimed that Phrygian exhibits a sound change of stop consonants, similar to Grimm's Law in Germanic and, more to the point, sound laws found in Proto-Armenian; i.e., voicing of PIE aspirates, devoicing of PIE voiced stops and aspiration of voiceless stops. This hypothesis was rejected by Lejeune (1979) and Brixhe (1984) but revive...

    The grammatical structure of Phrygian, what can be recovered of it, was typically Indo-European. Declensions and verbal conjugations are strikingly similar to ancient Greek.

    Phrygian is attested fragmentarily, known only from a comparatively small corpus of inscriptions.A few hundred Phrygian words are attested; however, the meaning and etymologies of many of these remain unknown. A famous Phrygian word is bekos, meaning 'bread'. According to Herodotus (Histories 2.2), Pharaoh Psammetichus I wanted to determine the old...

    Phrygian poetry is rare. The only examples date from after Alexander the Great's conquest of Asia Minor (334 BCE), and they probably originated in imitation of Greek metrical epitaphs. The clearest example is the so-called "Middle Phrygian" inscription mentioned above, which consists of six dactylic hexameter lines. Also, as Lubotsky has proposed, ...

    Mallory, James P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2. http...
    Obrador-Cursach, Bartomeu (2018). Lexicon of the Phrygian Inscriptions. University of Barcelona - Faculty of Philology - Department of Classical, Romance and Semitic Philology. https://www.tesisenr...
    Obrador-Cursach, Bartomeu (9 April 2020). "On the place of Phrygian among the Indo-European languages". Journal of Language Relationship 17 (3–4). doi:10.31826/jlr-2019-173-407. https://www.degruyt...
    Woodhouse, Robert (2009). "An overview of research on Phrygian from the nineteenth century to the present day". Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis 126 (1). ISSN 2083-4624. h...
  4. Phrygian language, ancient Indo-European language of west-central Anatolia. Textual evidence for Phrygian falls into two distinct groups. Old Phrygian texts date from the 8th to 3rd centuries bce and are written in an alphabet related to but different from that of Greek. The majority of those that can be understood are cultic in nature. Most were found at established Phrygian sites such as ...

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