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    • How is the family tree of the Celtic languages ordered?

      • How the family tree of the Celtic languages is ordered depends on which hypothesis is used: Eska evaluates the evidence as supporting the following tree, based on shared innovations, though it is not always clear that the innovations are not areal features.
  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Italo-CelticItalo-Celtic - Wikipedia

    e. In historical linguistics, Italo-Celtic is a hypothetical grouping of the Italic and Celtic branches of the Indo-European language family on the basis of features shared by these two branches and no others. There is controversy about the causes of these similarities. They are usually considered to be innovations, likely to have developed ...

  2. Jan 06, 2021 · Phrygian Phrygian was an Indo-European language related to Dacian and Thracian and belonging to the Paleo-Balkan branch of languages. It was spoken in Central Asia Minor until about the 5th century AD. The earliest known inscriptions in Phyrgian date from the 8th century BC and were written in an alphabet derived from Phoenician.

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  4. Recent years have brought a considerable improvement of our insights into the prehistory of the Celtic languages. Cowgill has decisively shown how the distinction between absolute and conjunct verbal endings came about (1975). Rix has clarified the historical relation between the s-subjunctive and the a-subjunctive (1977: 153).

    • Frederik Kortlandt
  5. The question of the relationship of Common Celtic to the other Indo-European languages remains open. For some time, it was held that Celtic stood in an especially close relation to the Italic branch; some scholars even spoke of a period when an Italo-Celtic “nation” existed, toward the end of the 2nd millennium bc.

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    SIL Ethnologue lists six living Celtic languages, of which four have retained a substantial number of native speakers. These are the Goidelic languages (Irish and Scottish Gaelic, both descended from Middle Irish) and the Brittonic languages (Welsh and Breton, both descended from Common Brittonic). The other two, Cornish (Brittonic) and Manx (Goide...

    Celtic is divided into various branches: 1. Lepontic, the oldest attested Celtic language (from the 6th century BC). Anciently spoken in Switzerland and in Northern-Central Italy. Coins with Lepontic inscriptions have been found in Noricum and Gallia Narbonensis. 2. Celtiberian, also called Eastern or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic, spoken in the anci...

    Although there are many differences between the individual Celtic languages, they do show many family resemblances. 1. consonant mutations(Insular Celtic only) 2. inflected prepositions(Insular Celtic only) 3. two grammatical genders (modern Insular Celtic only; Old Irish and the Continental languages had three genders, although Gaulish may have me...

    It has been suggested that several poorly-documented languages may have been Celtic. 1. Ancient Belgian 2. Camunic is an extinct language spoken in the first millennium BC in the Val Camonica and Valtellina valleys of the Central Alps. It has recently been proposed to be a Celtic language. 3. Ivernic 4. Ligurian, in the Northern Mediterranean Coast...

    Ball, Martin J. & James Fife (ed.) (1993). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.
    Borsley, Robert D. & Ian Roberts (ed.) (1996). The Syntax of the Celtic Languages: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521481600.
    Cowgill, Warren (1975). "The origins of the Insular Celtic conjunct and absolute verbal endings". In H. Rix (ed.). Flexion und Wortbildung: Akten der V. Fachtagung der Indogermanischen Gesellschaft...
    Celtic Linguistics, 1700–1850(2000). London; New York: Routledge. 8 vols comprising 15 texts originally published between 1706 and 1844.
    Markey, Thomas L. (2006). “Early Celticity in Slovenia and at Rhaetic Magrè (Schio)”. In: Linguistica 46 (1), 145-72. https://doi.org/10.4312/linguistica.46.1.145-172.
    Sims-Williams, Patrick. “An Alternative to ‘Celtic from the East’ and ‘Celtic from the West’.” In: Cambridge Archaeological Journal30, no. 3 (2020): 511–29. doi:10.1017/S0959774320000098.
    Stifter, David. "The early Celtic epigraphic evidence and early literacy in Germanic languages". In: NOWELE - North-Western European Language Evolution, Volume 73, Issue 1, Apr 2020, pp. 123–152. I...
    Celtic languages at Curlie
    Aberdeen University Celtic Department Archived 8 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine
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