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  1. 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état. In late February 1948, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia. It marked the onset of four decades of the party's rule in the country. The coup's significance extended well beyond the state's boundaries as it was a clear marker ...

  2. 10 hours ago · George Mason University ( Mason or GMU) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia. The university was originally founded in 1949 as a northern branch of the University of Virginia. Named after Founding Father of the United States George Mason in 1959, it became an independent university in 1972.

    • The Patriot
    • 39,032 (Fall 2020)
  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Book_of_JobBook of Job - Wikipedia

    May 13, 2022 · The Book of Job consists of a prose prologue and epilogue narrative framing poetic dialogues and monologues. It is common to view the narrative frame as the original core of the book, enlarged later by the poetic dialogues and discourses, and sections of the book such as the Elihu speeches and the wisdom poem of chapter 28 as late insertions, but recent trends have tended to concentrate on the ...

  4. May 11, 2022 · Ordinary language analysis largely flourished and developed at Oxford University in the 1940s, under Austin and Ryle, and was quite widespread for a time before declining rapidly in popularity in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Despite this decline, Stanley Cavell and John Searle (both students of Austin) published seminal texts which draw ...

    • George Fox and The Religious Society of Friends
    • Nayler's Sign
    • Other Early Controversies
    • Women and Equality
    • Persecution in England
    • William Penn and Settlement in Colonial Pennsylvania
    • Eighteenth Century
    • Nineteenth Century
    • Twentieth-Century Developments
    • External Links

    When George Fox was eleven, he wrote that God spoke to him about "keeping pure and being faithful to God and man." After being troubled when his friends asked him to drink alcohol with them at the age of nineteen, Fox spent the night in prayer and soon afterwards, he left his home to search for spiritual satisfaction, which lasted four years. In hi...

    In 1656, a popular Quaker minister, James Nayler, went beyond the standard beliefs of Quakers when he rode into Bristol on a horse in the pouring rain, accompanied by a handful of men and women saying "Holy, holy, holy" and strewing their garments on the ground, imitating Jesus's entry into Jerusalem. While this was apparently an attempt to emphasi...

    The Society was rent by controversy in the 1660s and 1670s because of these tendencies. First, John Perrot, previously a respected minister and missionary, raised questions about whether men should uncover their heads when another Friend prayed in meeting. He also opposed a fixed schedule for meetings for worship. Soon this minor question broadened...

    One of their most radical innovations was a more nearly equal role for women, as Taylor (2001) shows. Despite the survival of strong patriarchal elements, Friends believed in the spiritual equality of women, who were allowed to take a far more active role than had ordinarily existed before the emergence of radical civil war sects. Among many female...

    In 1650 George Fox was imprisoned for the first time. Over and over he was thrown in prison during the 1650s through the 1670s. Other Quakers followed him to prison as well. The charge was causing a disturbance; at other times it was blasphemy. Two acts of Parliament made it particularly difficult for Friends. The first was the Quaker Act of 1662 w...

    William Penn, a colonist who the king owed money to, received ownership of Pennsylvaniain 1681, which he tried to make a "holy experiment" by a union of temporal and spiritual matters. Pennsylvania made guarantees of religious freedom, and kept them, attracting many Quakers and others. Quakers took political control but were bitterly split on the f...

    In 1691 George Fox died. Thus the Quaker movement went into the 18th century without one of its most influential early leaders. Thanks to the Toleration Act of 1689, people in Great Britain were no longer criminals simply by being Friends. During this time, other people began to recognize Quakers for their integrity in social and economic matters. ...

    Quaker influence on society

    During the 19th century, Friends continued to influence the world around them. Many of the industrial concerns started by Friends in the previous century continued as detailed in Milligan's Biographical dictionary of British Quakers in commerce and industry, with new ones beginning. Friends also continued and increased their work in the areas of social justice and equality. They made other contributions as well in the fields of science, literature, art, law and politics. In the realm of indus...

    Theological schisms

    Quakers found that theological disagreements over doctrine and evangelism had left them divided into the Gurneyites, who questioned the applicability of early Quaker writings to the modern world, and the conservative Wilburites. Wilburites not only held to the writings of Fox (1624–91) and other early Friends, they actively sought to bring not only Gurneyites, but Hicksites, who had split off during the 1820s over antislavery and theological issues, back to orthodox Quaker belief. Apart from...

    Native Americans

    The Quakers were involved in many of the great reform movements of the first half of the 19th century. After the Civil War they won over President Grant to their ideals of a just policy toward the American Indians, and became deeply involved in Grant's "Peace Policy". Quakers were motivated by high ideals, played down the role of conversion to Christianity, and worked well side by side with the Indians. They had been highly organized and motivated by the anti-slavery crusade, and after the Ci...

    During the 20th century, Quakerism was marked by movements toward unity, but at the end of the century Quakers were more sharply divided than ever. By the time of the First World War, almost all Quakers in Britain and many in the United States found themselves committed to what came to be called "liberalism", which meant primarily a religion that d...

  5. May 17, 2022 · Because his “parents could do but little to check the evil propensities which distinguished [him]” Wilson, “at an age when few children have abandoned their leading-strings,” “was left to the guidance of [his] own will, and became, in all but name, the master of [his] own actions.”. He declares, “my voice was a household law.”.