The Lusitano, also known as the Pure Blood Lusitano or PSL, is a Portuguese horse breed, closely related to the Spanish Andalusian horse. Both are sometimes called Iberian horses, as the breeds both developed in the Iberian peninsula, and until the 1960s they were considered one breed, under the Andalusian name. Horses were known to be present on the Iberian Peninsula as far back as 20,000 BC, and by 800 BC the region was renowned for its war horses. The fame of the horses from Lusitania goes ba
- Convex profile, powerful neck and hindquarters, high-stepping gait
- Portuguese horse, Peninsular horse, Betico-lusitano
The British author J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973) and the names of fictional characters and places he invented for his legendarium have become the namesake of various things around the world, including street names, mountains, companies, species of animals and plants, and other notable objects.
Chapter 3. Literacy in the Ancient World Schools, libraries, and scholarly practices. As urban settlements and new patterns of social life became established in the Ancient Near East, human beings created new forms of administrative and cultural infrastructure.
The animals have escaped at the zoo and the keeper needs your help! The presentation first encourages students to describe the features of animals. It then challenges students to match animals to their names, description and habitat. It includes a variety of animals including fish, birds, mammals, insects and amphibians.
- Toponymy and Denomination
- Physical Environment
The toponym Murcia has a controversial origin. According to Francisco Cascales, this toponym could refer to the Roman goddess Venus Murcia, related to the myrtles on the banks of the Segura River, a hypothesis that has been discussed in this regard. Historical studies conclude that, like the above-mentioned divinity, Murcia is a place name of Latin origin that derives very probably from Myrtea or Murtea (“place of myrtles” or “place where grow the myrtles”) and that Mursiya (first name already documented in the Islamic period to the city of Murcia) was the adaptation of the Arabic from the pre-existing Latin term. According to Bienvenido Mascaray, the name would come from the Iberian language in the form m-ur-zia, meaning "the water that empowers or moistens".as Bienvenido Mascaray, the name would come from the Iberian language in the form m-ur-zia, meaning "the water that soaks or moistens". The use of this term to define the present region also has its origin in the Taifa of Murci...
The flag of the Region of Murcia is rectangular and contains four battlement castles in gold, at the upper left corner, distributed two in two (symbolizing the border character of the ancient Kingdom of Murcia and the four borders that it had at some point in its history), and seven royal crowns at the lower right angle (these being the escutcheon of the historical coat of arms of the Kingdom of Murcia), arranged in four rows, with one, three, two and one elements, respectively; all on a crimsonbackground or Cartagena. Its origin dates back to the Spanish transition, when the president of the Regional Council of Murcia, Antonio Pérez Crespo, established a commission in 1978 to study the future flag of the Region of Murcia. The commission was formed by historians Juan Torres Fontes and José María Jover and senators Ricardo de la Cierva and Antonio López Pina. The project was approved on 26 March 1979 and the flag was first hoisted on 5 May 1979 on a balcony of the Regional Council bu...
The Region of Murcia is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. With 11,313 km2, it is the ninth largest region of Spain by area and represents 2.9% of the national extension. The Community extends over the greater part of the hydrographic basin of the Segura River, thus counting with a defined geographical unit, except for the comarcas of the Sierra de Segura and the Campos de Hellín which were in the province...
The region of Murcia is located at the eastern end of the Baetic System, being affected climatologically by an orography that isolates it from the Atlantic influence. These mountain ranges are divided in turn from North to South in: 1. the Cordillera Prebética: the northernmost, where the Sierra del Carchestands out among others. 2. the Cordillera Subbética: it consists of numerous dipping faults superimposed on each other or on the materials of the Prebaetic. The Massif of Revolcadores, the...
The Region of Murcia enjoys a semi-arid Mediterranean climate, with mild winters (an average of 11 °C in December and January) and warm summers (where the daily maximum regularly exceeds 40 °C). The average annual temperature is 18 °C. With little precipitation of about 300 to 350 mm per year, the region has between 120 and 150 days in the year where the sky is totally clear. April and October have the most precipitation, with frequent heavy downpours in a single day. The distance to the sea...
Prehistory and Ancient Era
Human beings have been present in Region of Murcia since the Lower Paleolithic era. In regards to the Middle Paleolithic, there is a noteworthy paleontological site, Sima de Las Palomas, located in Torre-Pacheco municipality in the southeast of the region. Bone remains of Neanderthalshave been discovered there. During the Chalcolithic era, the region was inhabited by people of the argaric civilization, which endured until the early Bronze Age. A remarkable site is La Bastida, in the Totana mu...
Moorish Middle Ages
In the early 8th century there was a dispute over succession to the throne among some Visigothic clans. The king Witiza chose his son Agila as his successor while the nobles of the court chose Roderico for the throne. The people in favour of Agila conspired to overthrow the new king Roderico. They asked Muslim troops for help and they would provide the Muslims. The Muslims began conquering the Iberian Peninsula in 711. The king Roderico was murdered and the Visigothic kingdom disappeared. Con...
Christian Middle Ages and modern period
Ferdinand III of Castile received the submission of the Moorish king of Murcia under the terms of the 1243 Treaty of Alcaraz[es] turning the territory into a protectorate of the Crown of Castile. There were towns that rejected compliance with the treaty such as Qartayanna-Al halfa (Cartagena), Lurqa (Lorca) and Mula. There were also towns where governors accepted the treaty but inhabitants did not, such as Aledo, Ricote, Uruyla (Orihuela) and Medina La-Quant (Alicante), (although the two last...
The Region of Murcia has a population of 1,424,063 inhabitants (INE 2008, National Statistic Institute of Spain), of which almost a third (30.7%) live in the municipality of Murcia. It makes up 3.0% of the Spanish population. In addition, after Ceuta and Melilla, Murcia has the highest population growth (5.52 by thousand inhabitants) and also the highest birth rate of the country. 1. Birth rate (2004): 13.00 per 1,000 2. Mortality rate (2004): 7.48 per 1,000 3. Life expectancy (2002): 3.1. Men: 76.01 years 3.2. Women: 82.00 years In the 1991-2005 period the Murcian population grew at by 26.06%, as opposed to the national average of 11.85%. 12.35% of the inhabitants are of foreign origin, according to the INE 2005 census, which is 4% more than the Spanish average. The most notable groups of immigrants are Ecuadorians (33.71% of the total of foreigners), Moroccans (27.13%), Britons (5.95%), Bolivians (4.57%) and Colombians (3.95%). Roman Catholicismis, by far, the largest religion in...
The Region of Murcia comprises 45 municipalities, the most populated being Murcia, Cartagena, Lorca, and Molina de Segura.
The Spanish spoken in the region has its own accent and local words. The Murcian dialect is one of the southern dialects of Spanish and tends to eliminate many syllable-final consonants and to emphasize regional vocabulary, much of which is derived from Aragonese, Catalan and Arabic words. The general intonation and some of the distinctive vocabulary of the Spanish dialect spoken in Murcia share several traits with the one spoken in the neighboring province of Almería, north of Granada, and the Vega Baja del Segura in the Alicante province. The Valencian language is spoken in a small area of the region known as El Carche.
The Gross domestic product(GDP) of the autonomous community was 31.5 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 2.6% of Spanish economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 22,800 euros or 76% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 84% of the EU average. Agriculture, ranching and fishing equalled a 5.99% of Region of Murcia Gross Value Added (GVA). Extraction industries, manufacturing industries and several power supplies economy activities equalled 18.32% of the GVA.Tourism sector activities provided 11.4% of regional GPD in 2018. 35.9% of the territory is occupied by landcrops and high grown products in the region are oat, barley, lettuce, citrus fruits, peaches, almonds, apricots, olives and grapes. It is common to find Murcia's tomatoes and lettuce, and especially lemons and oranges, in European supermarkets. Murcia is a producer of wines, with about 30 hectares (75 acres) devoted to grape vineyards. Most of the vineyards are located in Ju...
Despite the famous seaside resorts, the overall region is relatively unknown even within Spain, so it continues to be relatively unspoilt compared to other more overcrowded areas of the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Nevertheless, its more than 300 sunny days a year with an average temperature of 21 degrees Celsius, and the 250 km (160 mi) of beaches of the so-called Costa Cálida(Warm Coast) have attracted tourists for decades. The region is also being promoted as a cultural destination with a lot of highlights for visitors: monuments, gastronomy, cultural events, museums, historic remains, festivals etc. The Region of Murcia is one of the Spanish autonomous communities that has grown the most in the last years, and this has conferred it the character of an ideal destination of services, shopping and for the organization of cultural events and conventions.
The region's highway network provides connectivity along the coast, with three highways links with Andalusia (Autovía A-91, Autovía A-7 and the tolled Autopista AP-7) and another three with the Valencian Community (A-7 and the tolled AP-7 and Autopista AP-37), but only the Autovía A-30connects Murcia with inland Spain. It is thus the goal of the regional government to provide alternative highway corridors that connect the inland border of Murcia to the coastal zones. All in all, the autonomou...
The Chinchilla–Cartagena railway provides the only rail route to Madrid from the region. The Cercanías Murcia/Alicante commuter rail network connects Murcia to Alicante via Orihuela and Elche, along with a branch to Águilas. The Madrid–Levante high-speed rail network is due to reach Murcia in 2021, and the Murcia–Almería high-speed rail linewill connect the region to Almería by 2023.
The Región de Murcia International Airport opened in 2019 replacing the Murcia San Javier Airport for passenger flights. It was used by a million passengers in its first year of operation. Alicante Airport, although outside Murcia, is also used by air travellers from the region.
May 25, 2014 · 3 Parlache. Parlache is a Colombian criminal dialect that was born on the streets of Medellin in the 1980s. Poor urban planning, social unrest, and a failing education system plagued Medellin. Young impoverished men from the countryside flocked to the city and discovered that cocaine was the biggest business in town.
- Acculturation and Assimilation
- Family and Community Dynamics
- Employment and Economic Traditions
- Politics and Government
- Individual and Group Contributions
- Organizations and Associations
Unlike many other ethnic groups in the United States, Creoles did not migrate from a native country. The term Creole was first used in the sixteenth century to identify descendants of French, Spanish, or Portuguese settlers living in the West Indies and Latin America. There is general agreement that the term "Creole" derives from the Portuguese word crioulo, which means a slave born in the master's household. A single definition sufficed in the early days of European colonial expansion, but as Creole populations established divergent social, political, and economic identities, the term acquired different meanings. In the West Indies, Creole refers to a descendant of any European settler, but some people of African descent also consider themselves to be Creole. In Louisiana, it identifies French-speaking populations of French or Spanish descent. Their ancestors were upper class whites, many of whom were plantation owners or officials during the French and Spanish colonial periods. Du...
Differences of opinion regarding the Creoles persist. The greatest controversy stems from the presence or absence of African ancestry. In an 1886 lecture atTulane University, Charles Gayarre ("Creoles of History and Creoles of Romance," New Orleans: C.E. Hopkins, c. 1886) and F. P. Poche (in a speech at the American Exposition in New Orleans, New Orleans Daily Picayune, February 8, 1886) both stated that Louisiana Creoles had "not a particle of African blood in their veins." In "A Few Words About the Creoles of Louisiana" (Baton Rouge: Truth Books, 1892), Alcee Fortier repeated the same defense. These three men were probably the most prominent Creole intellectuals of the nineteenth century. Lyle Saxon, Robert Tallant, and Edward Dreyer continued this argument in 1945 by saying, "No true Creole ever had colored blood." According to Sister Dorothea Olga McCants, translator of Rodolphe Lucien Desdunes' Our People and Our History (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973), th...
The original language community of the Creoles was composed of French and Louisiana Creole. French was the language of white Creoles; it should not be confused with Louisiana Creole (LC). Morphologically and lexically Louisiana Creole resembles Saint-Domingue Creole, although there is evidence that Louisiana Creole was well established by the time Saint-Domingue refugees arrived in Louisiana. For many years, Louisiana Creole was predominantly a language of rural blacks in southern Louisiana. In the past, Louisiana Creole was also spoken by whites, including impoverished whites who worked alongside black slaves, as well as whites raised by black nannies. French usage is no longer as widespread as it once was. As Americans from other states began to settle in Louisiana in large numbers after 1880, they became the dominant social group. As such, the local social groups were acculturated, and became bilingual. Eventually, however, the original language community of the Creoles, French a...
Traditionally, men were the heads of their household, while women dedicated their lives to home and family. The Creoles also felt it a duty to take widowed cousins and orphaned children of kinspeople into their families. Unmarried women relatives (tantes) lived in many households. They provided a much-needed extra pair of hands in running the household and rearing the children. Creoles today are still closely knit and tend to marry within the group. However, many are also moving into the greater community and losing their Creole ways.
Roman Catholicismis strongly associated with Creoles. The French and Spanish cultures from which Creoles originate are so closely associated with Catholicism that some people assume that all Louisianians are Catholic and that all people in Louisiana are of French and/or Spanish ancestry. Records from churches in Mobile, New Orleans, and other parts of the area indicate the presence of both black and white Creoles in church congregations very early in the eighteenth century. After segregation of the Catholic church in 1895, certain churches became identified with Creoles of color. In 1916 Corpus Christi Church opened in the seventh ward, within walking distance of many Creoles of color. St. Peter Claver, Epiphany, and Holy Redeemer are also associated with black populations. Each church has a parish school run by the Blessed Sacrament Sisters. St. Louis Cathedral and St. Augustine's Church are prominent in the larger Creole society, with women predominating in attendance. Today, only...
The Creoles' image of economic independence is rooted in the socioeconomic conditions of free people of color before the Civil War. Creoles of colorwere slave owners, land owners, and skilled laborers. Of the 1,834 free Negro heads of households in New Orleans in 1830, 752 owned at least one slave. New Orleans persons of color were far wealthier, more secure, and more established than blacks elsewhere in Louisiana. Economic independence is highly valued in the colored Creole community. Being on welfare is a source of embarrassment, and many of those who receive government aid eventually drop out of the community. African Americanswith steady jobs, respectable professions, or financial independence frequently marry into the community and become Creole, at least by association. Creoles of color and black Creoles have been quick to adapt strategies that maintain their elite status throughout changing economic conditions. Most significant is the push to acquire higher education. Acceler...
When the Constitutional Conventionof 1811 met at New Orleans, 26 of its 43 members were Creoles. During the first few years of statehood, native Creoles were not particularly interested in national politics and the newly arrived Americans were far too busy securing an economic basis to seriously care much about political problems. Many Creoles were still suspicious of the American system and were prejudiced against it. Until the election of 1834, the paramount issue in state elections was whether the candidate was Creole or Anglo-American. Throughout this period, many English-speaking Americans believed that Creoles were opposed to development and progress, while the Creoles considered other Americans radical in their political ideas. Since then, Creoles have actively participated in American politics; they have learned English to ease this process. In fact, Creoles of color have dominated New Orleans politics since the 1977 election of Ernest "Dutch" Morial as mayor. He was followe...
In 1858 and 1859 Paul Morphy (1837-1884) was the unofficial but universally acknowledged chess champion of the world. While he is little known outside chess circles, more than 18 books have been written about Morphy and his chess strategies.
Kate O'Flaherty Chopin (1851-1904) was born in St. Louis; her father was an Irish immigrant and her mother was descended from an old French Creole family in Missouri. In 1870 she married Oscar Chopin, a native of Louisiana, and moved there; after her husband's death, she began to write. Chopin's best-known works deal with Creoles; she also wrote short stories for children in The Youth's Companion. Bayou Folk (1894) and The Awakening (1899) are her most popular works. Armand Lanusse (1812-1867...
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard (1818-1893), is perhaps the best known Louisiana Creole. He was born in New Orleans, educated in New York (unusual for the time), graduated from West Point Military Academy, and served with General Scott in the War with Mexico (1846). Beauregard was twice wounded in that conflict. He served as chief engineer in the draining of the site of New Orleans from 1858 to 1861. He was also a Confederate General in the Civil War and led the siege of Ft. Sumter in 1861....
The Alexandria News Weekly. Founded in 1975, this general newspaper for the African American community contains frequent articles about Creoles. Contact:Rev. C. J. Bell, Editor. Address:1746 Wilson, Alexandria, Louisiana 71301. Telephone:(318) 443-7664. Bayou Talk. A Cajun Creole newspaper. Address: Jo-Val, Inc., Box 1344, West Covina, California91793-1344. Louisiana Weekly. Black community newspaper published since 1925, which contains frequent articles about Creoles. Contact:C. C. Dejoie, J...
KAOK-AM. Ethnic programs featuring Cajun and Zydeco music. Contact:Ed Prendergast. Address:801 Columbia Southern Road, Westlake, Louisiana 70669. Telephone:(318) 882-0243. KVOL-AM/FM. Features a weekly Creole broadcast with African American programming, news, and Zydeco music. Contact:Roger Canvaness. Address:123 East Main Street, Alexandria, Louisiana 70501. Telephone:(318) 233-1330.
Creole American Genealogical Society (CAGS). Formerly Creole Ethnic Association. Founded in 1983, CAGS is a Creole organization which promotes Creole American genealogical research. It provides family trees and makes available to its members books and archival material. Holds an annual convention. Contact:P. Fontaine, Executive Director. Address: P.O. Box 3215, Church Street Station, New York, New York10008.