English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the Frisian North Sea coast, whose languages gradually evolved into the Anglic languages in the British Isles, and into the Frisian languages and Low German/Low Saxon on the continent.
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Ethnonym. The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from...
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Germanic tribes (Saxons, Angles, and Jutes) came to Britain from around 449 AD. They made their home in the south and east of the island, pushing out the Celtic Britons who were there before them, or making them speak the English language instead of the old Celtic languages. Some people still speak Celtic languages today, in Wales (Welsh) and elsewhere. Gaelic is the Scottish Celtic language, still spoken by some in the Scottish Highlands and Islands. "Scots" is a dialect of English (although some call it a separate language). Irish Gaelicis spoken by very few people today. The Germanic dialects of these different tribes became what is now called Old English. The word "English" comes from the name of the Angles: Englas. Old English did not sound or look much like the English spoken today. If English speakers today were to hear or read a passage in Old English, they would understand just a few words. The closest language to English that is still used today is Frisian, spoken by about...
Written English uses a strange spelling. Different words can use the same letters and combinations for very different sounds. For example, "-ough" was once a gutturalbut has become different in "through" (threw), "rough" (ruff), "dough" (doe) or "cough" (coff). That can make it a difficult language to learn. Many English-speaking countries spell words differently. Some words are spelled differently in the United States from in the United Kingdom and many other countries and others of the British Commonwealth, where English is the main language. The different ways of spelling are sometimes called "American English" and "British English". For example, "colour" is spelled "color" in American English, and "programme" is spelled "program". Even the word "spelled" is different in British English, which uses "spelt".
The English Alphabet consists of 26 letters:- A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Nearly 60% of the vocabularyin the English language comes from Latin and its descendents, mainly French: 1. Langue d'oïl (French): 29.3% 2. Latin, including modern scientific and technical Latin and Frankish (Germanic language): 28.7% 3. Germanic languages: 24% (inherited from Old English/Anglo-Saxon, Proto-Germanic, Old Norse, etc. without including Germanic words borrowed from a Romance languages) 4. Greek: 5.32% 5. Italian, Spanish and Portuguese: 4.03% 6. Derived from proper names: 3.28% 7. All other languages: less than 1% However, the most common words are more often those of Germanic origin. Also, expressions and typical short phrases are often of Germanic origin.
The English word language derives ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s "tongue, speech, language" through Latin lingua, "language; tongue", and Old French language. The word is sometimes used to refer to codes , ciphers , and other kinds of artificially constructed communication systems such as formally defined computer languages used for computer programming .
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English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon migrants from what is now northwest Germany, southern Denmark and the Netherlands. The Anglo-Saxons settled in the British Isles from the mid-5th century and came to dominate the bulk of southern Great Britain. Their language, now called Old English, originated as a group of Anglo-Frisian dialects which were spoken, at least by the settlers, in Engl
English has its roots in the languages of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. During the Roman Empire, most of the Germanic-inhabited area remained independent from Rome, although some southwestern parts were within the empire. Some Germanics served in the Roman military, and troops from Germanic tribes such as the Tungri, Batavi, Menapii and Frisii served in Britain under Roman command. Germanic settlement and power expanded during the Migration Period, which saw the fall of the Western Ro
The Germanic settlers in the British Isles initially spoke a number of different dialects, which would develop into a language that came to be called Anglo-Saxon, or now more commonly Old English. It displaced the indigenous Brittonic Celtic in parts of the areas of Britain that later formed the Kingdom of England, while Celtic languages remained in most of Scotland, Wales and Cornwall, and many compound Celtic-Germanic place names survive, hinting at early language mixing. Old English continued
Middle English is the form of English spoken roughly from the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 until the end of the 15th century. For centuries after the Conquest, the Norman kings and high-ranking nobles in England and to some extent elsewhere in the British Isles spoke Anglo-Norman, a variety of Old Norman, originating from a northern langue d'oïl dialect. Merchants and lower-ranked nobles were often bilingual in Anglo-Norman and English, whilst English continued to be the language of ...
English underwent extensive sound changes during the 15th century, while its spelling conventions remained largely constant. Modern English is often dated from the Great Vowel Shift, which took place mainly during the 15th century. The language was further transformed by the spread of a standardized London-based dialect in government and administration and by the standardizing effect of printing, which also tended to regularize capitalization. As a result, the language acquired self-conscious te
The first authoritative and full-featured English dictionary, the Dictionary of the English Language, was published by Samuel Johnson in 1755. To a high degree, the dictionary standardized both English spelling and word usage. Meanwhile, grammar texts by Lowth, Murray, Priestly, and others attempted to prescribe standard usage even further. Early Modern English and Late Modern English, also called Present-Day English, differ essentially in vocabulary. Late Modern English has many more words, ari
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The English Wikipedia is the English-language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia. It was founded on 15 January 2001 as Wikipedia's first edition and, as of June 2021, has the most articles of any edition, at 6,339,140. As of July 2021, 11% of articles in all Wikipedias belong to the English-language edition. This share has gradually declined from more than 50 percent in 2003, due to the growth of Wikipedias in other languages. The edition's one-billionth edit was made on 13 Januar
The English Wikipedia was the first Wikipedia edition and has remained the largest. It has pioneered many ideas as conventions, policies or features which were later adopted by Wikipedia editions in some of the other languages. These ideas include "featured articles", the neutral-point-of-view policy, navigation templates, the sorting of short "stub" articles into sub-categories, dispute resolution mechanisms such as mediation and arbitration, and weekly collaborations. The English Wikipedia has
The English Wikipedia reached 4,000,000 registered user accounts on 1 April 2007, just a little over a year since the millionth Wikipedian registered an account in late February 2006. Over 1,100,000 editors have edited Wikipedia more than 10 times. Over 30,000 editors perform more than 5 edits per month, and a little over 3,000 perform more than 100 edits per month. By 24 November 2011, a total of 500 million edits had been performed on the English Wikipedia. As the largest Wikipedia edition, an
One controversy in the English Wikipedia concerns which national variety of the English language is to be preferred, with the most commonly advocated candidates being American English and British English. Perennial suggestions range from standardizing upon a single form of Englis
A 2013 study from Oxford University concluded that the most disputed articles on the English Wikipedia tended to be broader issues, while on other language Wikipedias the most disputed articles tended to be regional issues; this is due to the English language's status as a global
Several incidents of threats of violence against high schools on Wikipedia have been reported in the mainstream press. The Glen A. Wilson High School was the subject of such a threat in 2008, and a 14-year-old was arrested for making a threat against Niles West High School on Wik
- Learning in Schools
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English is taught in many schools. It may be a required course for graduation, or students may choose to study it. For profit language schools are also common in many countries. These businesses sell English lessons.
Other people try to learn English on their own, or in a less formal setting than in a group of people with a teacher. People might meet with others who are trying to learn English, in order to practice speaking. People can also listen to radio broadcasts in English, or watch television programmes in English to help them improve their listening ability. A popular channel to listen to the radio on is broadcast by the BBC, called the BBC World Service Archived 2001-09-21 at the Library of CongressWeb Archives. People can also study English by reading books, or listening to English courses on recorded CDs or cassettes.
The internet boom has created lot of avenues for learning. People can get lot of ideas on how to improve English communication skills using search engines like Google, Yahoo, etc. Especially during the lockdown due to Covid-19, online classes and courses became a main source of learning. The BBC World Service has a free website for people who are learning English as a second or foreign language called BBC Learning English.BBC English learning center Archived 2005-08-10 at the Wayback Machine
English is seen as having this role due to the prominence of the United States and the United Kingdom, both English-speaking countries, in development and popularization of computer systems, computer networks, software and information technology.
Mar 12, 2021 · English has became one of the most important language in the word and it a communication ...Country% English SpeakersTotal English SpeakersTotal English SpeakersUnited States94.2298,444,149298,444,149India10.35125,226,449125,226,449Pakistan4992,316,04992,316,049Nigeria5382,941,000
- Zeeshan Naved
- English is a global language. English is the most commonly spoken language in the world. One out of five people can speak or at least understand English!
- Studying English can help you get a job. English is the language of science, aviation, computers, diplomacy, and tourism. Knowing English increases your chances of getting a good job in a multinational company within your home country or of finding work abroad.
- Learning English can help you meet new people. English is the official language of 53 countries and is used as a lingua franca (a mutually known language) by people from all around the world.
- Many scientific papers are written in English. In the last century, the number of scientific papers written in English has started to outweigh the number of papers written in the native language of the researcher.
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The play was written following the success of Wilde's earlier plays Lady Windermere's Fan, An Ideal Husband and A Woman of No Importance. He spent the summer of 1894 with his family at Worthing, where he began work on the new play. His fame now at its peak, he used the working title Lady Lancing to avoid preemptive speculation about its content. Many names and ideas in the play were borrowed from people or places the author had known; Lady Queensberry, Lord Alfred Douglas's mother, for example, lived at Bracknell.[n 1] Wilde scholars agree the most important influence on the play was W. S. Gilbert's 1877 farce Engaged,from which Wilde borrowed not only several incidents but also "the gravity of tone demanded by Gilbert of his actors". Wilde continually revised the text over the next months. No line was left untouched and the revision had significant consequences. Sos Eltis describes Wilde's revisions as refined art at work. The earliest and longest handwritten drafts of the play lab...
The play was first produced at the St James's Theatre on Valentine's Day 1895. It was freezing cold but Wilde arrived dressed in "florid sobriety", wearing a green carnation. The audience, according to one report, "included many members of the great and good, former cabinet ministers and privy councillors, as well as actors, writers, academics, and enthusiasts". Allan Aynesworth, who played Algernon Moncrieff, recalled to Hesketh Pearson that "In my fifty-three years of acting, I never rememb...
In contrast to much theatre of the time, the light plot of The Importance of Being Earnest does not seem to tackle serious social and political issues, something of which contemporary reviewers were wary. Though unsure of Wilde's seriousness as a dramatist, they recognised the play's cleverness, humour and popularity with audiences. Shaw, for example, reviewed the play in the Saturday Review, arguing that comedy should touch as well as amuse, "I go to the theatre to be moved to laughter." Lat...
The Importance of Being Earnest and Wilde's three other society plays were performed in Britain during the author's imprisonment and exile, albeit by small touring companies. A. B. Tapping's company toured Earnest between October 1895 and March 1899 (their performance at the Theatre Royal, Limerick, in the last week of October 1895 was almost certainly the first production of the play in Ireland). Elsie Lanham's company also toured 'Earnest' between November 1899 and April 1900. Alexander rev...Jack Worthing (Ernest), a young gentleman from the country, in love with Gwendolen Fairfax.Algernon Moncrieff, a young gentleman from London, the nephew of Lady Bracknell, in love with Cecily Cardew.Gwendolen Fairfax, a young lady, loved by Jack Worthing.Lady Bracknell, a society lady, Gwendolen's mother.
Arthur Ransome described The Importance... as the most trivial of Wilde's society plays, and the only one that produces "that peculiar exhilaration of the spirit by which we recognise the beautiful." "It is", he wrote, "precisely because it is consistently trivial that it is not ugly." Ellmann says that The Importance of Being Earnest touched on many themes Wilde had been building since the 1880s – the languor of aesthetic poses was well established and Wilde takes it as a starting point for...
As a satire of society
The play repeatedly mocks Victorian traditions and social customs, marriage and the pursuit of love in particular. In Victorian times earnestness was considered to be the over-riding societal value, originating in religious attempts to reform the lower classes, it spread to the upper ones too throughout the century. The play's very title, with its mocking paradox (serious people are so because they do notsee trivial comedies), introduces the theme, it continues in the drawing room discussion,...
Suggested homosexual subtext
Queer scholars have argued that the play's themes of duplicity and ambivalence are inextricably bound up with Wilde's homosexuality, and that the play exhibits a "flickering presence-absence of… homosexual desire".On re-reading the play after his release from prison, Wilde said: "It was extraordinary reading the play over. How I used to toy with that Tiger Life." It has been claimed that the use of the name Earnest may have been a homosexual in-joke. In 1892, three years before Wilde wrote th...
Bunburying is a stratagem used by people who need an excuse for avoiding social obligations in their daily life. The word "bunburying" first appears in Act I when Algernon explains that he invented a fictional friend, a chronic invalid named "Bunbury", to have an excuse for getting out of events he does not wish to attend, particularly with his Aunt Augusta (Lady Bracknell). Algernon and Jack both use this method to secretly visit their lovers, Cecily and Gwendolen.
Use of language
While Wilde had long been famous for dialogue and his use of language, Raby (1988) argues that he achieved a unity and mastery in Earnest that was unmatched in his other plays, except perhaps Salomé. While his earlier comedies suffer from an unevenness resulting from the thematic clash between the trivial and the serious, Earnest achieves a pitch-perfect style that allows these to dissolve. There are three different registers detectable in the play. The dandyish insouciance of Jack and Algern...
Though Wilde deployed characters that were by now familiar – the dandy lord, the overbearing matriarch, the woman with a past, the puritan young lady – his treatment is subtler than in his earlier comedies. Lady Bracknell, for instance, embodies respectable, upper-class society, but Eltis notes how her development "from the familiar overbearing duchess into a quirkier and more disturbing character" can be traced through Wilde's revisions of the play. For the two young men, Wilde presents not...
Structure and genre
Ransome argues that Wilde freed himself by abandoning the melodrama, the basic structure which underlies his earlier social comedies, and basing the story entirely on the Earnest/Ernest verbal conceit. Freed from "living up to any drama more serious than conversation" Wilde could now amuse himself to a fuller extent with quips, bons mots, epigrams and repartee that really had little to do with the business at hand. The genre of the Importance of Being Earnest has been deeply debated by schola...
Wilde's two final comedies, An Ideal Husband and The Importance of Being Earnest, were still on stage in London at the time of his prosecution, and they were soon closed as the details of his case became public. After two years in prison with hard labour, Wilde went into exile in Paris, sick and depressed, his reputation destroyed in England. In 1898, when no one else would, Leonard Smithers agreed with Wilde to publish the two final plays. Wilde proved to be a diligent reviser, sending detai...
The Importance of Being Earnest's popularity has meant it has been translated into many languages, though the homophonous pun in the title ("Ernest", a masculine proper name, and "earnest", the virtue of steadfastness and seriousness) poses a special problem for translators. The easiest case of a suitable translation of the pun, perpetuating its sense and meaning, may have been its translation into German. Since English and German are closely related languages, German provides an equivalent a...
Apart from several "made-for-television" versions, The Importance of Being Earnest has been adapted for the English-language cinema at least three times, first in 1952 by Anthony Asquith who adapted the screenplay and directed it. Michael Denison (Algernon), Michael Redgrave (Jack), Edith Evans (Lady Bracknell), Dorothy Tutin (Cecily), Joan Greenwood (Gwendolen), and Margaret Rutherford (Miss Prism) and Miles Malleson (Canon Chasuble) were among the cast. In 1992 Kurt Baker directed a version...
Operas and musicals
In 1960, Ernest in Love was staged Off-Broadway. The Japanese all-female musical theatre troupe Takarazuka Revuestaged this musical in 2005 in two productions, one by Moon Troupe and the other one by Flower Troupe. In 1963, Erik Chisholm composed an opera from the play, using Wilde's text as the libretto. In 1964, Gerd Natschinski composed the musical Mein Freund Bunburybased on the play, 1964 premiered at Metropol Theater Berlin. According to a study by Robert Tanitch, by 2002 there had been...
In 2016 Irish actor/writers Helen Norton and Jonathan White wrote the comic play To Hell in a Handbag which retells the story of Importancefrom the point of view of the characters Canon Chasuble and Miss Prism, giving them their own back story and showing what happens to them when they are not on stage in Wilde's play.
1. Beckson, Karl E. (1970). Oscar Wilde: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge. ISBN 0710069294. 2. Beerbohm, Max (1970). Last Theatres 1904–1910. London: Rupert Hart-Davis. OCLC 622626394. 3. Bloom, Harold (2008). Oscar Wilde. Bloom's Literary Criticism. New York: Infobase. ISBN 978-1604131406. 4. Bristow, Joseph (2008). Oscar Wilde and Modern Culture – The Making of a Legend. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. ISBN 978-0821418383. 5. D'Arch Smith, Timothy (1998). Bunbury–Two Notes on O...The Importance of Being Earnest at Project Gutenberg(Kindle, EPUB and txt files)The Importance of Being Earnest at the Internet Broadway Database: performance history, cast lists, awards received