1 day ago · Sir Peter Robert Jackson ONZ KNZM (born 31 October 1961) is a New Zealand film director, screenwriter, and film producer.He is best known as the director, writer, and producer of the Lord of the Rings trilogy (2001–03) and the Hobbit trilogy (2012–14), both of which are adapted from the novels of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien.
11 hours ago · Free will is the capacity of agents to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded. Free will is closely linked to the concepts of moral responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgements which apply only to actions that are freely chosen. It is also connected with the concepts of advice, persuasion, deliberation, and ...
1 day ago · The Metropolitan City of Rome, with a population of 4,355,725 residents, is the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Its metropolitan area is the third-most populous within Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio ( Latium ), along the shores of the Tiber.
11 hours ago · This article is about the 2011 series. For the 1968–69 season, see Doctor Who (season 6). Season of television series Doctor Who Series 6 DVD box set cover art Starring Matt Smith Karen Gillan Arthur Darvill Country of origin United Kingdom No. of stories 11 No. of episodes 13 (+1 supplemental) Release Original network BBC One Original release 23 April (2011-04-23) – 1 October 2011 (2011 ...
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Early life and education
Haldane was born in Oxford to John Scott Haldane, a physiologist, scientist, a philosopher and a Liberal, and Louisa Kathleen Trotter, a Conservative, and descended from Scottish ancestry. His only sibling, Naomi, became a writer and got married to Dick Mitchison, Baron Mitchison (thereby becoming Naomi Mary Margaret Mitchison, Baroness Mitchison), who was his best friend at Eton College. His uncle was Viscount Haldane and his aunt the author Elizabeth Haldane. Descended from an aristocratic...
To support the war effort, Haldane volunteered for and joined the British Army, and was commissioned a temporary second lieutenant in the 3rd Battalion of the Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) on 15 August 1914. He was assigned as the trench mortar officer, to lead his team for hand-bombing the enemy trenches, the experience of which he remarked "enjoyable." In his article in 1932 he described how "he enjoyed the opportunity of killing people and regarded this as a respectable relic of pr...
In 1956, Haldane left University College London, and joined the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) in Calcutta (later renamed Kolkata), India, where he worked in the biometry unit. Haldane gave many reasons for moving to India. Officially he stated that he left the UK because of the Suez Crisis, writing: "Finally, I am going to India because I consider that recent acts of the British Government have been violations of international law." He believed that the warm climate would do him good, an...
Following his father's footsteps, Haldane's first publication was on the mechanism of gaseous exchange by haemoglobin in The Journal of Physiology, and he subsequently worked on the chemical properties of blood as a pH buffer. He investigated several aspects of kidney functionsand mechanism of excretion.
Haldane became a socialist during the First World War; supported the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War; and then became an open supporter of the Communist Party in 1937. A pragmatic dialectical-materialist Marxist, he wrote many articles for the Daily Worker. In On Being the Right Size, he wrote: "while nationalization of certain industries is an obvious possibility in the largest of states, I find it no easier to picture a completely socialized British Empire or United States than an elephant turning somersaultsor a hippopotamus jumping a hedge." Haldane has been accused by authors including Peter Wright and Chapman Pincher of having been a Soviet GRU spy codenamed Intelligentsia. In 1938, he proclaimed enthusiastically that "I think that Marxism is true." He joined the Communist Party of Great Britain in 1942. He was pressed to speak out about the rise of Lysenkoism and the persecution of geneticists in the Soviet Union as anti-Darwinist and the political suppre...
Haldane was the first to have thought of the genetic basis for human cloning, and the eventual artificial breeding of superior individuals. For this he introduced the terms "clone" and "cloning", modifying the earlier "clon" which had been used in agriculture since the early 20th century (from Greek klōn, twig). He introduced the term in his speech on "Biological Possibilities for the Human Species of the Next Ten Thousand Years" at the Ciba Foundation Symposium on Man and his Futurein 1963....
Ectogenesis and in vitro fertilisation
His essay Daedalus; or, Science and the Future (1924) introduced the term ectogenesis for the concept of what is later known as in vitro fertilisation (test tube babies). He envisioned ectogenesis as a tool for creating better individuals (eugenics). Haldane's work was an influence on Huxley's Brave New World (1932) and was also admired by Gerald Heard. Various essays on science were collected and published in a volume titled Possible Worlds in 1927. His book, A.R.P. (Air Raid Precautions) (1...
Criticism of C.S. Lewis
Along with Olaf Stapledon, Charles Kay Ogden, I. A. Richards, and H. G. Wells, Haldane was accused by C. S. Lewis of scientism. Haldane criticised Lewis and his Ransom Trilogy for the "complete mischaracterisation of science, and his disparagement of the human race". Haldane wrote a book for children titled My Friend Mr Leakey (1937), containing the stories "A Meal With a Magician", "A Day in the Life of a Magician", "Mr Leakey's Party", "Rats", "The Snake with the Golden Teeth", and "My Magi...
Haldane was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1932. The French Government conferred him its National Order of the Legion of Honour in 1937. In 1952, he received the Darwin Medal from the Royal Society. In 1956, he was awarded the Huxley Memorial Medal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain. He received the Feltrinelli Prize from Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in 1961. He also received an Honorary Doctorate of Science, an Honorary Fellowship at New College, and the Kimber Award of the US National Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the Linnean Society of London's prestigious Darwin–Wallace Medalin 1958.He is famous for the (possibly apocryphal) response that he gave when some theologians asked him what could be inferred about the mind of the Creator from the works of His Creation: "An inordinate...He was often quoted as saying, "My own suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we cansuppose.""It seems to me immensely unlikely that mind is a mere by-product of matter. For if my mental processes are determined wholly by the motions of atoms in my brain I have no reason to suppose that my..."Teleologyis like a mistress to a biologist: he cannot live without her but he's unwilling to be seen with her in public."Briggs, G. E; Haldane, J. B (1925). "A note on the kinetics of enzyme action". Biochemical Journal. 19 (2): 338–339. doi:10.1042/bj0190338. PMC 1259181. PMID 16743508.(With G.E. Briggs)List of independent discoveries ("primordial soup" theory of the evolution of life from carbon-based molecules, c.1924)Bryson, Bill (2003). A Short History of Nearly Everything. pp. 300–302; ISBN 0-552-99704-8Clark, Ronald (1968). JBS: The Life and Work of J.B.S. Haldane. Coward-McCann. ISBN 0-340-04444-6Crow, James F. (2000). "Centennial: J. B. S. Haldane, 1892–1964". In Crow, James F.; Dove, William F. (eds.). Perspectives on Genetics: Anecdotal, Historical, and Critical Commentaries, 1987–1998....Dronamraju, Krishna R. (1968). Haldane and Modern Biology. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-8018-0177-8.Works by J.B.S. Haldane at Faded Page(Canada)Possible worlds, and other essays at Toronto Public LibraryAn online copy of Daedalus or Science and the Future
11 hours ago · Under Philip II, Spain reached the height of her influence and power, sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age, and ruled territories in every continent then known to Europeans. Philip led a highly debt-leveraged regime, seeing state defaults in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, and 1596.
11 hours ago · Islam ( / ˈɪslɑːm /; Arabic: اَلْإِسْلَامُ , romanized : al-’Islām, [ɪsˈlaːm] ( listen) "submission [to God]") is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with 1.9 billion followers, or 24.9% of the world's population, known as Muslims.