Inclined planes are widely used to move heavy loads over vertical obstacles; examples vary from a ramp used to load goods into a truck, to a person walking up a pedestrian ramp, to an automobile or railroad train climbing a grade.
Inclined planes are widely used in the form of loading ramps...
The mechanical advantage of an inclined plane depends on its...
- Frictionless inclined plane
If there is no friction between the object being moved and...
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia An inclined plane allows to access the upper floor An inclined plane is a simple machine. It allows one to use less force to move an object.
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An inclined plane is a type of cable railway used on some canals for raising boats between different water levels. Boats may be conveyed afloat, in caissons, or may be carried in cradles or slings. An inclined plane is quicker and wastes less water than a flight of canal locks, but is more costly to install and operate.
An inclined plane, also known as a ramp, is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load. The inclined plane is one of the six classical simple machines defined by Renaissance scientists. Inclined planes are widely used to move heavy loads over vertical obstacles; examples vary from a ramp used to load goods ...
The Hay Inclined Plane is a canal inclined plane in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, with a height of 207 feet. It was located at the end of the Shropshire Canal, part of a network of canals that linked the industrial region of east Shropshire with the River Severn. The inclined plane was in operation from 1793 to 1894. It can be visited as part of the Blists Hill Victorian Town and is also a waypoint on the South Telford Heritage Trail.
The proprietors of the Shropshire Canal held a competition in 1788 to find the best means of raising and lowering heavy weights between the canal and the river Severn. They selected a design by Henry Williams and James Loudon, which was also used at a number of other inclined planes in east Shropshire. Construction of the Hay inclined plane was completed in 1793. By 1820 it was in poor condition and substantial repairs were needed. Further repairs were also carried out in the 1940s. In 1857 the
The Shropshire Canal used box-shaped tub boats 20 feet long with a load capacity of 5 tons. Twin railway tracks were laid down the incline. The tub boats ascended and descended the inclined plane on wheeled cradles which ran on the rails. At the bottom of the incline the rails went underwater allowing the cradle to become submerged and the tub boat to either float free or be floated into position. At the top of the incline the rails also started under water then climbed a short slope out of the
The Johnstown Inclined Plane is a 896.5-foot funicular in Johnstown, Cambria County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. The incline and its two stations connect the city of Johnstown, situated in a valley at the confluence of the Stonycreek and the Little Conemaugh Rivers, to the borough of Westmont on Yoder Hill. The Johnstown Inclined Plane is billed as the "world's steepest vehicular inclined plane", and can carry automobiles and passengers, up or down a slope with a grade of 71.9%. The travel
The Johnstown Inclined Plane was designed by Hungarian engineer Samuel Diescher, who had also designed the Duquesne, Castle Shannon and Fort Pitt Inclines in Pittsburgh. The funicular consists of a parallel set of 8 ft broad gauge railroad tracks with a 70.9% grade or an angle of 35 degrees and 28 minutes from the horizontal. The incline is 896.5 feet long and ascends 502.2 feet vertically to the top of Yoder Hill and the borough of Westmont, the station of which is at an elevation of 1,693.5 fe
Inclines are common in Europe, and immigrants, like the German, Slavic, and Welsh people who settled near Johnstown, remembered them from their native lands and brought the concept to the United States. The earliest inclines in the United States were a series of 10 that were buil
The incline's original steam engine was disconnected on January 6, 1912, and replaced with an electric motor. The cars used on the incline were originally double-deckers, but were reconfigured into a single-decker design in 1921. The double-decker cars had horses and wagons ridin
Covasna's inclined plane is a unique standard gauge railway system used to carry logs by using gravity, without any other source of energy. The inclined plane in 1994, five years before it was permanently closed The inclined plane ran on the path that today is covered by trees with lower height, the wooden building being one of the abandoned operational stations
Covasna's inclined plane, was designed by engineer Emil Lux in 1886, at the initiative of lumber mill owner David Horn near the border between the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Romania. The railway's main purpose was to increase wood supply and timber transportation. A narrow gauge railway Comandău - Covasna was therefore built between 1889 and 1891. After two years Horn transferred the concession to forestry company Ardeleana, formerly Erdelyi Erdoipar RT. Ardeleana was founded in 1890 and ...
The train operated by allowing the weight of a loaded train to pull a lighter, empty train up the slope. A metal cable connected the two trains. Operation was controlled from the control room located in the top station. Trains ran on a normal track gauge. In the middle of the route a branch allowed the simultaneous passage of the wagons.
- Speed Control
- Safety Catches
- Band Brake
- Rope Or Chain
As the waggons moved on the plane, the weight of the chain/rope increased on the descending side and decreased on the ascending side. Thus, it was essential to keep waggons under control once they were in motion and this was accomplished in three ways. 1. By the skilful design of the inclined plane itself, for which full credit must be given to Thomas Brown, the surveyor and resident engineer. It was designed in such a way that the gradient at the top (1:6¼) was greater than the gradient at the bottom (1:8¼). The effect of this was twofold: it reduced the action of gravity as the waggons approached the top and bottom respectively and it offset the changing weight of the incline chain/rope. 2. By a band brake, integral with a chain/rope drum, installed at the top. A brakeman working in a wooden tower above the 18 ft (5.5 m) diameter drum controlled this brakeand from his elevated position he had a commanding view of the inclined plane. 3. By the friction between the chain/rope and su...
In the event of an accident, three catches were provided towards the top of the plane to stop runaway waggons but their method of operation is unknown and it is not known how effective they were. The two running tracks on the plane were laid parallel to each other and this makes it evident that a gravel dragpitwas not provided for runaway waggons to enter. On several occasions reports of chain/cable breakage were recorded and descending loaded waggons crashed into Buxton Road Bridge at the foot of the plane.
An iron post, incorporating a red and white disc and bell signal, was positioned between the running tracks at the bottom of the plane and when everything was ready a signal was given to the brakeman, the bell being used when it was misty or dark.When the brakeman was also satisfied that everything was ready at the top, he released the brake and the descending waggons were pushed onto the plane. As the descending waggons approached the bottom the reduced gradient slowed them down and simultaneously this action was assisted by the increased gradient encountered by ascending waggons as they approached the top. When the brakeman was assured that the waggons had completed the full traverse of the plane, he stopped them by fully applying the brake.
At the top of the plane the incline chain/rope passed underground and into a pit where it was wound one and a half turns around a horizontal drum 14 feet (4.3 m) in diameter. The groove in the drum for the chain/rope was lined with wooden blocks with the grain facing outwards to increase the friction. Above this groove there was an integral brake wheel about 5 inches (13 cm) wide. A wrought iron (or steel) band brake encircled this, which almost made a 360° arc of contact with the brake wheel, and this was lined with wooden blocks with the grain facing inwards to increase the friction. The band brake was anchored to the back wall of the pit and at the front, one end was cranked upwards and the other end was cranked downwards. The upward crank was attached above the fulcrum of the brake lever and the downward crank was attached below the fulcrum. The brake lever was about 15 feet (4.6 m) long and it extended into the hut at the top of the tower. In spite of the large mechanical advan...
When the tramway opened in 1796, a hemp rope was used on the incline but it was found that this was too weak and a wrought-iron chain soon replaced it. This also proved not to be strong enough and in 1809 it was replaced. The new chain had links 5 inches (127 mm) long and it was manufactured in Birmingham at a cost of £500. Records suggest that the chain was also replaced in 1817 and again in 1831. It was about 1,075 yards (983 m) long and weighed about 7 tons. With the development of the Bessemer steel making processduring the 1860s, a steel rope eventually replaced the chain and this was 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter and weighed 6 tons (tonnes).
At first, the chain/rope was supported and guided on the plane by wooden blocks placed between the rails every 10 yards (9.1 m) but it is known that steel rollers were fitted in the late 1860s or the 1870s as it became easier to manufacture steel. While the substantial drag between the chain/rope and the wooden blocks was put to beneficial use in the operation of the plane it must have been found that this was too great and rollers were substituted for blocks with the purpose of reducing drag.
The inclined plane The Ronquières Inclined Plane is a Belgian canal inclined plane on the Brussels-Charleroi Canal in the province of Hainaut in Wallonia that opened in April 1968 after six years of construction. It is in the municipality of Braine-le-Comte and takes its name from the nearby village of Ronquières.